臨床試驗專員(CRA)的人員流動與工作鑲嵌之個案研究–以國內某委託研究機構(CRO)為例 Job Embeddedness and Turnover of the Clinical Research Associate (CRA) – A Case Study of a Contract Research Organization (CRO) in Taiwan

Date
2017
Authors
楊佩貞
Yang, Pei-Chen
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Abstract
本研究依循工作鑲嵌(Job Embeddedness)概念出發,探討在製藥生技服務產業中委託研究機構 CRO (Contract Research Organization)中之臨床試驗專員CRA(Clincal Research Associate)的人員高流動問題,從留職的概念出發,進一步探討員工對組織依賴的因素,組織如何改善不利因素,降低員工的離職意圖與行為。期望運用工作鑲嵌架構來發展兼具組織優勢與員工喜好之留才與用人策略。 本研究採用個案分析法,主要針對個案公司之CRA 離職與在職人員以及主管進行深度訪談,除了訪談離職員工了解其離職的主要因素外,亦訪談在職員工,了解員工留在組織的原因,以及產生離職意圖未轉換為離職行為的原因,以及訪談主管了解其希望組織能提供什麼樣的協助,來提升CRA人員的在職穩定性。 訪談結果發現,資淺人員因為把到外商公司工作當為第一優先選擇,因此從工作鑲嵌中 「連結」、「契合」、「犧牲」三個因素皆無法讓他們留在組織內;而工作鑲嵌中的「連結」與 「契合」最能解釋資深人員的留任,「犧牲」則無顯著的影響。 本研究所獲得主要發現是運用工作鑲嵌的觀點來檢視CRA人員,其離職意圖深受產業與職務特性影響,與其找尋留才策略,更需思考的是用人策略。在用人策略上,建議用資深人員帶領資淺人員,適度搭配外籍人士,透過提供工作證及久任獎金雙重誘因來取得穩定的人力。個別公司的薪資結構是無法對抗整個產業的需求,薪資必須要接近市場行情,以及提供有前景的未來才能吸引優秀人才的效力及不畏外商公司的挖角。 本研究的結論是生技人才的不足是造成CRA人員高流動性的主因,若政府、學校與產業三者朝強化產業合作方向進行,注重人才培育,降低學用差距能培育產業界所需要的人才,在質與量皆增加的情況下,可以改善生技業缺乏人才的窘境。
Based on the concept of job embeddedness, this study aims to discuss the high CRA staff turnover of Contract Research Organization (CRO) in the pharmaceutical biotechnology services industry. Starting from the concept of retention, this study further explores the factors of staff dependency on the organization,and how organizations can improve some negative factors to reduce the intentions and behavior of staff turnover. This study is expected to use the framework of job embeddedness to develop talent strategies, concerning both the advantages of organizations and the preferences for employees. The study adapts a case study method to conduct in-depth interviews with the case company’s former and current CRA staff and supervisors. In addition to interviewing former employees to understand their main reasons for leaving their organization, we also interview current employees to find out the reasons why they choose to stay and the reasons why they remain staying in their organization even if they want to leave. We also interview supervisors about the ideal organizational practices that could improve the job stability of CRA personnel. The results reveal that because junior staff view working in foreign companies as their job priority, factors in job embeddedness such as “fit, links and sacrifice” wouldn’t be suitable incentives for them to stay in their current companies. However, “link” and “fit” can be best explained for the senior staff to stay, and “sacrifice” has no significant effect. The main discovery of the study is that when we adapt the idea of job embeddedness to CRA staff, we can justify that their turnover intention is resulted from industries they belonged to and their job characteristics as well. Therefore, the organization should rather think about employment strategies than look for retaining strategies. In terms of employment strategies, we suggest that senior staff lead junior staff, and companies moderately incorporate foreign employees through the provision of work permits and bonuses for long-term work. By providing the double incentive, we hope to obtain stable sources of manpower. After all, the salary structure of an individual corporation can’t fit the demand for the whole industry; therefore, it must remain close to the market. Furthermore, companies should provide a promising future of itself to attract excellent talents and to be unafraid of foreign companies’ headhunting actions. The conclusion of this study is that the main cause of high CRA staff turnover is lacking in biotechnological talents. If the government, schools and industry could reinforce the collaboration between industries and schools, emphasize on the cultivation of talents and reduce the gap between schools and industry, the quality and quantity of human resource could be improved simultaneously. Hopefully, the lack of talents in the biotechnology industry can be resolved.
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工作鑲嵌, 委託研究機構(CRO), 臨床試驗專員(CRA), Job Embeddedness, Contract Research Organization (CRO), Clinical Research Associate ( CRA)
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