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A Pop-ups Learning Landscape–A Case Study of Phenomenon-based Learning in Finland
interdisciplinary teaching and learning
三、個案學校以真實世界現象為意義之網交織以概念作為主題透鏡的「現象為本學習周」(Phenomenon-Based Learning Week)，促使學習者發揮「實驗性學習」(experimental learning)精神以整合真實知識、社會與經驗。
The approach of phenomenon-based learning in Helsinki has drawn the international attention since Finland implemented new core curriculum guidelines in 2016. Phenomenon-based learning uses themes or issues as the core of teaching and learning and entails interdisciplinary characteristics that may help develop the competencies needed for the 21st century. This study explored the context of the implementation of phenomenon-based learning in Helsinki schools and conducted a field study in a public school to understand the teaching and learning practices in depth. The case of this study was a public school in Helsinki with ten-year experiences of International Baccalaureate programs. The study applied observations, interviews, and document analysis in a seventh-grade classroom for one year. Several key findings emerged from this study. First, the approach of phenomenon-based learning was not only an active practice on the post-modern curriculum but also a creation of a weak framing-and-classification. Second, the case school incorporated the national curriculum guideline and IB system that tended to take the "Inquiry-Based Learning" as a method to connect different subjects. Third, the theme of the Phenomenon-Based Learning Week was real-world phenomena and concepts which allowed students to integrate their knowledge and experience for experimental learning. Fourth, case school regarded students as the center of an ecosystem and encouraged them to make connections across subjects through dialogue and interaction. Finally, phenomenon-based learning challenged students to learn in creative ways from "what kinds of subject knowledge I want to integrate (multi-disciplinary/inter-disciplinary)," "how I apply what I have learned in issues (inter-disciplinary/trans-disciplinary)" to "taking direct action (trans-disciplinary/disciplinary-free)." This kind of "pop-ups learning" experience broadened the landscape of interdisciplinary teaching and learning. The study also provides cross-cultural research reflections and several suggestions for the implementation of the 12-Year Basic Education Curriculum Guidelines in Taiwan.
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