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A Study on Formation of Professional Standards for Secondary School Teachers: A Perspective of New Institutionaliam
professional standards for secondary school teachers
In this study, the researcher used the public policy theory (New Institutionalism) as an analytical basis for that through the perspective of systems’ transforming on New Institutionalism to explore the formation of teachers' professional standards, including the background and process of formation. And try to depict the path of formation of teachers' professional standards, including the key factors which influenced the formation of teachers' professional standards and the positions and powers’ interactions of various stakeholders. At last, in accordance with the challenges or difficulties of formation to bring up the feasible strategies as an important reference for promotions of educational policy in the future. Through analysis of interviews and the records of conference from the various stakeholders (including the government agencies, academic experts, principal groups, parent groups, teachers groups, general teachers), this study found that the background of teachers’ professional standards is mainly triggered from the protection of the studnets’ educational rights and considerations of social fairness. There were three effective factors in the formation of the teachers' professional standards, namely “institutional benefit” (Did the teacher professional standards bring to stakeholders more efficiency?), “social identity” (Did the teacher professional standards get the public recognition?), “cultural context” (Did it think over the social status of teachers?). Because different stakeholders had different political images and goals (teachers’ groups and parents’ groups looked the teachers’ professional standards as the tool of teacher evaluation, but the remainder looked it as the highest professional spirit reference of education), and unequal power relations (government, principals, and teachers belonged to bureaucracy), this circumstance led to that the different stakeholders not only had the same standpoints but also the different standpoint. Because parents’ groups require the implementation of teacher evaluation, they supported teachers' professional standards very much. As a matter of course, the government and the principals’ groups in order to respond to the demands of parents, they also supported teachers' professional standards. General teachers were worried about the side effect, so they trended to oppose the teachers' professional standards. The teachers’ groups stood on the standpoint which keeping the teachers’ rights and interests, so they opposed teachers' professional standards very strongly. Scholars and experts in order to provide the professional advice and coordinated the conflicts, they were neutral. Facing the challenges of implementation of teachers’ professional standards, the first step was that understanding the context of the development of teacher evaluation system in the past, getting the trusts from the teachers’ groups and basic level teachers, considering domestic work’s field of education, and giving local school appropriate professional autonomy. Finally, through the perspective of New Institutionalism, from the origin of the system, historical factors, and process of negotiation, to the system’s impact and feasible strategies in the future, the New Institutionalism included the past, present and future of system, adding that the concept of timeline of institutional development. This point of view was ignored by the Traditional Institutionalism (Stage and Unstage theory). Based on the findings of this study, the researcher gave some recommendations to government agencies, academic experts, principals’ groups, parents’ groups, teachers’ groups, and general teachers. And the researcher also provided some directions for the future research.
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