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Title: 漢唐醫學之「人神」禁忌研究
'REN SHEN' Acupuncture Taboo of Traditional Medicine during Han and Tang Dynasty
Authors: 藤井倫明
Michiaki Fujii
Liu, Tseng-kuei
Cheng, Wan-Chun
Keywords: 人神
ren shen
ren qi
correspondence between human body and natural environment
yong ju
blood and qi
medical taboos
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 本文旨在探討漢唐時期醫療方面的「人神」禁忌。正如唐代藥王孫思邈所指出的,醫者施行針灸前必須先知道病人的「行年」以及「人神所在」。若醫者在診療時誤傷了患者的「人神所在」,可能會導致病人死亡。在漢唐時人的眼光中,究竟如何理解「人神」?漢唐醫家如何避免犯傷「人神」?「人神」禁忌的理論基礎為何?目前對於「人神」的源流未清,爭議仍多。全文聚焦在「人神」概念的發展、傳承、變異以及應用,希冀能重建「人神」禁忌在漢唐時期中的原始面貌,拼湊出古代醫學地圖缺漏的「人神」區塊。 本研究主要採取輯佚的方式將各種「人神」資料勾稽出來。藉由整理《黃帝蝦蟇經》、《備急千金要方》、《外臺秘要方》等醫學典籍,以及秦簡、楚簡與漢簡文獻和敦煌醫學卷子,耙梳出各式「人神」禁忌並且試圖說明當中的意涵。經研究發現,在漢末三國到南北朝時期的醫學發展中,「人神」概念仍處於一個發展期,各家各派都有其依時避忌的學說。「人氣」、「人神」的說法相互滲透、結合,到了唐代開始取得突破性進展,匯流成一套「人神」禁忌學說。在實際操作方面,為了避免誤傷患者的「人神」,醫家所採取的解決之道就是取「天醫」。 本文可總結成三大結論。第一、人與天地相應的思想是「人神」立論的核心。第二、犯傷人神容易使人發癰疽,刺癰疽也需避「人神」。第三、周期節律是「人神」原理的精髓。總之,「人神」禁忌有其一定的規律,其時間和空間的搭配是固定不變的。
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the taboo of Traditional Chinese Medicine about Acupuncture-mox from Han dynasty to Tang Dynasty. The acupuncture taboo originates from Han dynasty and becomes a theory in Tang dynasty. A representative Chinese medical doctor, Sun, described in his book Qiānjīn yì fāng千金翼方the pre-requite ritual before acupuncture is performed: to grasp the ‘xíng nián ’行年of the patient and ‘rén shén suǒ zài.’人神所在. The taboo above is of little concern, however, if the patient is in emergency. If the co-existence of ‘rén shén’人神preclude acupuncture, then is the non-existence of them an approval? Since the notion of ‘ren shen’ still eludes easy definition, but this thesis attempts to delve into the historical contexts of its popular medical realities in the both dynasties and find its theoretic ground for a still controversial issue. To historicize ‘rén shén’ —to bring a historical controversy to light— this thesis relies heavily on such medical classics as ‘Huángdì háma jīng’黃帝蝦蟇經, ‘Bèijí qiānjīn yàofāng’備急千金要方, ‘Wàitái mìyào fāng’外臺秘要方, bamboo slips of Han dynasty and Dūnhuáng Medial Paper. On this matrix of medical documents, by these medical documents, a historicized edifice of ‘rén shén’ taboo can be shed some light. Its aim is to map the contour of ‘rén shén’ during Tang and Han dynasties, and, most importantly, to integrate the ‘rén shén’ vignette into the tapestry of ancient medicine. According to research, ‘rén shén’, from the latter Han Dynasty into Wei-Jin and the Northern and Southern Dynasties, is still in its formative stage in which its practice does not consolidate into a consistent scholarship. ‘Rén shén’ and ‘rén qi’ influence each other and intermingle. It is not until the Tang Dynasty that these various notions form a stringent system of the ‘rén shén’ taboo. In practice, to preserve the will-being of the patient’s ‘rén shén’, medical experts adopt the approach of ‘ tiān yī’天醫. In a nutshell, there are three points of the conclusion of this thesis. First the correspondence of the human and sky/earth is the essence of ‘rén shén’ theory. Second, to harm ‘rén shén’ can cause yōng jū癰疽, but treat such ulcer must take ‘rén shén’ into account. Third, ‘rén shén’ follows a rigorous pattern. In sum, ‘rén shén’ is a constellation of taboos that plays out itself along the coordinates of time and space.
Other Identifiers: GN0698810079
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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