Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85860
Title: 蘭嶼的語言接觸與語言變化
Language Contact and Language Change on Orchid Island
Authors: 許慧如
藤井倫明
賴莉芳
Li-Fang Lai
Keywords: 語言接觸
語言變化
社會方言
社會網絡
語言轉移
language contact
language change
social dialect
social network
language shift
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: 本論文旨在考察蘭嶼雅美/達悟語的語言接觸與語言變化兩大論題。 語言接觸經常反映出群體間的政治社會關係,因台灣治權轉移之故,雅美/達悟語分別與日語、華語展開接觸。語言接觸以來,該語言社群已經歷三個發展階段:日治時期,雅美/達悟語和日語的使用場域高度互補,但在雅美/達悟-日語雙語者有限的情況下,語言社群屬於有分語但無雙語現象的狀態。國民政府領台至民國五○年代末,雅美/達悟語和華語的使用場域仍可清楚劃分;在此同時,因推行義務教育之故,雅美/達悟-華語雙語者迅速增加,語言社群也逐漸發展成兼具分語和雙語現象的狀態。民國六○年代以來,義務教育年限延長以及華語人口遷入等因素,進一步強化了語言社群的雅美/達悟-華語雙語現象,但雅美/達悟語和華語的使用場域卻開始相互滲透,不再明顯區隔。由此觀之,今日的語言社群較接近有雙語但無分語現象的狀態。 雅美/達悟語的語言變化主要體現於三方面:首先,雅美/達悟語與日語接觸後陸續借入日語詞彙,這些日語借詞不僅擴充了雅美/達悟語的詞彙層,後人也可從大量匯入的時間詞和現代器物詞看出,語言社群裡現代時間觀念之形成與物質型態的轉變。其次,本論文從年齡、性別、社會網絡三個變項探討不同群體所使用的社會方言。語料顯示,較年輕和社會網絡強度較弱的群組/li/和/v/的音變比例最高,這個現象意味著,語言社群內/li/、/v/兩個音正處於不穩定的狀態。最後,本論文從年齡、性別、社會網絡、對話者四個面向考察受測者的語言使用模式。語料顯示,較年長和社會網絡指數較高的群組使用雅美/達悟語的頻率比其他群組高。另外,當對話者為較年長或與自己同齡者,雅美/達悟語仍是較通行的語言;當對話者為較年輕的晚輩時,則以使用華語的情形較常見。值得注意的是,家庭場域中,已經有五成中年世代的父母親直接以華語跟小孩或晚輩溝通。顯然,年輕世代正面臨顯著的語言轉移,若未積極進行族語復振,日後多數的語言社群成員可能直接將語言轉移成華語。
The thesis aims to discuss language contact and examine language changes in the Yami language. As a result of the shift of governing power, the Yami speech community was forced to come into contact with Japanese and Mandarin respectively. During the Japanese colonization period, Yami and Japanese were in complementary distribution. However, due to the limited Yami-Janpanese bilingualism, the speech community could only be regarded as diglossia without bilingualism. From 1945 to the late 1960s, as Yami came into contact with Mandarin, these two languages were highly domain-specific for different social functions. Meanwhile, with the quick development of Yami-Mandarin bilingualism, the speech community had developed into diglossia with bilingualism. Since the 1970s, as the locals have had more access to Mandarin, Yami-Mandarin bilingualism had been broadly established within the speech community, but Yami and Mandarin had not been as highly domain-specific as that in the past, which had turned the speech community into bilingualism without diglossia. As the thesis discusses language changes in Yami, the author focuses on the Japanese loanwords in Yami, phonetic variations between different social groups, and language use patterns. The results are as follows: firstly, the influx of Japanese loanwords concerning time and modern innovations has not only expanded the lexicon of Yami but also signified the development of time sense and material life in the Yami speech community. Secondly, phonetic variations have been observed among different social dialects classified by age, gender, and social network factors. The results indicate that participants of the younger age and the weaker social network groups have higher percentage of phonetic variations, which also manifest the phonetic unstability in the Yami language. Finally, as the language use patterns show, older generations and those with stronger social network ties use Yami more frequently than other groups. Besides, when speaking to someone of the same age or older, the Yami people are accustomed to using Yami. When talking to younger generations, the Yami people tend to speak Mandarin instead. It is worth noting that fifty percent of the middle-aged parents use Mandarin exclusively to communicate with their children at home, which would probably result in a rapid language shift from Yami to Mandarin within the speech community in the next few decades.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0696810075%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85860
Other Identifiers: GN0696810075
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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