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Title: 衛三畏的漢語認識歷程
Samuel Wells Williams’ Understanding Process of Chinese Language
Authors: 潘鳳娟
Pan, Feng-Chuan
Kuo, Shu-Shi
Keywords: 美國漢學
American Sinology
Samuel Wells Williams
Chinese language of nineteenth century
Chinese Repository
The Middle Kingdom
A Syllable Dictionary of the Chinese Language
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: 一八三零年代來華的美國首批新教傳教士,在中國的「廣州制度」下開始他們的傳教事業。面對異文化所需探勘、相互交流的工具,學習漢語因此成為來華傳教士藉以瞭解中國社會的工作之基。作為十九世紀在華最久的傳教士之一,衛三畏(Samuel Wells Williams, 1812-1884)對漢語的深刻認識與豐碩的研究成果使其成為美國首位漢學教席。在其出版眾多與中國相關的著作中,以漢語學習書籍與總論性作品《中國總論》為重要的研究產出。然而,過去對於衛三畏的研究多著重於其所編字典,缺乏從他的漢語學習歷程來探討《中國總論》不同版本上的差異。有鑒於衛三畏對漢學的深刻貢獻,本研究透過文本分析探討衛三畏在華的漢語學習歷程,且藉其認識漢語的軌跡來檢視《中國總論》版本差異的背後原因。 研究結果發現,衛三畏除了透過閱讀書籍學習漢語外,更直接地受到地域方言的影響。這在其後編纂的《拾級大成》、《英華韻府歷階》、《英華分韻撮要》與《漢英韻府》中都可以見到他對中國方言的關注。不僅如此,受到中國方言豐富音韻的影響,其漢語研究中出現「重字音、輕語法」的研究特點,這與其重視語言雙向溝通的中心思想如出一轍。至於不同版本的《中國總論》則由於工作身份的轉換、遊歷經驗的增加以及自身對漢語的研究精進,使得在有關漢語知識的引介中有所刪改和增補。本研究透過對衛三畏漢語認識歷程系統性的考察,還原其來華後對漢語不斷認識的歷程,以此為十九世紀漢語研究提供一個可供參照的結果。
In the 1830s, the first group of American Protestant missionaries have begun preaching under the “Canton System” in China. In the face of the needs for cross-cultural communication, learning Chinese languages became the fundamentals for missionary work to understand Chinese society. Samuel Wells Williams (1812-1884), one of the well-known missionaries staying in China for the longest period in the nineteenth century, has great understandings of Chinese languages, and his contribution to the sinology make him known as first chair of Sinology in the United States. Among several Williams’ works related to China, the Chinese learning books and the introductory work, The Middle Kingdom, are his important research outputs. However, previous studies of Williams’ works put an emphasis on the dictionary studies instead of his Chinese learning journey and its effect on two editions of The Middle Kingdom. In view of his great influences and contributions to Sinology, this study investigated Williams’ Chinese learning process and trajectories as a perspective to examine the differences of two editions of The Middle Kingdom. The findings showed that Williams’ process of learning Chinese languages have been influenced not only by readings but also by Chinese regional dialects. His emphasis on Chinese regional dialects can be seen through his later editions of Easy Lessons in Chinese, An English and Chinese Vocabulary, A Tonic Dictionary of the Chinese Language, and A Syllable Dictionary of the Chinese Language. Additionally, in light of fruitful phonetics of Chinese dialects, his Chinese studies focus more on phonic and less on grammar, reflecting his central idea of reciprocal language communication. The differences between two editions of The Middle Kingdom may result from the transition of work identities, the increase of travel experiences, and increased understandings of Chinese languages. Through systematical investigations into Williams’ Chinese learning process, we revealed his trajectories of learning Chinese languages as a reference of Sinology studies in the nineteenth century.
Other Identifiers: G060483004I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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