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|Other Titles:||Changes in Foreign Relations during the Jiading Era (1208-1224 A.D.) of the Southern Song Dynasty|
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
|Abstract:||寧宗嘉定時期（ 1208-1224）對金和戰政策之特殊性，在於此時北方出現蒙古興起、河北群盜割立、金人南遷汴京等等劇烈變化，為向來居於外交弱勢之南宋， 帶來前所未有的主動契機。宋廷對金和戰政策以嘉定十年（ 1217）為界限，先後採行「以靜觀變」、「以戰應戰」。宋廷由和轉戰的政策轉向，既根源於蒙興金衰、宋方主戰議論興起，宋廷嘗試藉由談判歲幣調整宋金關係之和平手段失敗；更與金人主動南伐，壓縮南北議和空間，導致宋方強勢回應緊密相關。待宋金進入戰爭階段，相對於金人錯失幾次與宋議和機會，宋方即時調整策略，成功利用山東忠義勢力，取得象徵性勝利。嘉定十七年（金哀宗正大元年，1224），金人「榜諭宋界軍民，更不南伐」終結戰事，既標誌金人無力扭轉亡國敗局，也象徵宋蒙關係已然取代宋金關係，成為南宋維持生存的首要思考。|
The Southern Song dynasty experienced a profound change in its foreign relations during the Jiading era (1208-1224). The rise of the Mongols and the decline in the power of the Jurchen meant that the Southern Song, which had traditionally been rather weak, had an unprecedented opportunity to redefine its position vis-à-vis its neighbors. During the Jiading era, the Southern Song court took alternatively both a peaceful and a bellicose policy toward the Jurchen, with the tenth year of the Jiading era being the turning point: before the tenth year, the court took a wait-and-see approach toward the Jurchen; after the tenth year, those who advocated full-scale war gained the upper hand. One additional factor that fanned the flames of war was the refusal of the Jurchen to re-negotiate the terms of the tribute that the Southern Song court was required to pay. Even after full-scale war broke out between the Southern Song and the Jurchen, the Jurchen still had several opportunities to sue for peace; these, however, were not seized. The Southern Song eventually achieved a symbolic victory, especially after it adopted the policy, recommended by Chancellor Shi Mi-Yuan, of enlisting the help of the “Hans of Shandong” in the fight against the Jurchen. In the 17th year of the Jiading era (1224), the Jurchen formally declared that they had been defeated by the Southern Song. From then on, relations between the Southern Song and the Mongols became the most important factor affecting the long-term survival of the Southern Song dynasty.
|Appears in Collections:||臺灣師大歷史學報|
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