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|Other Titles:||Mental Number Line Representation and Number Line Estimation by Elementary Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties|
Wen-Hung Lien, Li-Yu Hung
National Taiwan Normal University Department of Special Education
Purpose: Mental representation of numbers is considered to possess not only quantitative but also spatial properties; therefore, researchers have designed various tasks to estimate it. Mental number line representation, derived from the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes effect, compresses large numbers as logarithmic functions, according to Dehaene (1993). The linear function becomes dominant as children grow. Therefore, this study investigated the development of mental number line representation and number line estimation in elementary school students who have mathematical learning difficulties (MLD). These types of representation and estimation assessed with the “number-to-position” task have been recommended as indicators of number sense in the literature. Methods: A computerized number-toposition task was designed using the Visual Basic program, and performance and speed were recorded when participants indicated the positions of numbers in lines shown on the screen. Four groups of students in the second and fourth grades were screened. Standardized mathematical and reading tests were administered. A cut-off score of <35th percentile for 2 consecutive years was used as the screening criterion for classifying the students into one of the following four groups: MLD with reading difficulties (RD) (MLD-RD), only MLD (MLD-only), only RD (RD-only), and normal achievement (NA). All students were tested using the computerized number-to-position task, and the data were examined through group, individual, and trial-by-trial analyses.Results/Findings: According to performance in the group and individual analyses, the mental number line representation of second-grade students with MLD (with/without RD) depended on ambiguous representation (falling between the logarithm and linear representation), and that of the students without MLD depended on the linear representation. However, in all groups of fourth-grade students, the mental number line tended to depend on
|Appears in Collections:||特殊教育研究學刊|
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