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Title: 臺灣總督府「土地調查事業(1898-1905)」的展開及其意義
Other Titles: A Preliminary Study on the Japanese Colonial Government's "Land Survey Project" in Taiwan
Authors: 吳密察
Mi-cha Wu
Issue Date: Dec-2017
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學台灣史研究所
Graduate Institute of Taiwan History
Abstract: 臺灣總督府於明治31年(1898)至明治38年(1905)間在臺灣殖民地展開了包括地形調查、建立地籍、土地制度和田賦改革的土地調查事業。本文旨在討論這個土地調查事業如何具體地展開,並對臺灣的土地制度帶來了如何的革命性變革,以及臺灣社會如何地接受這種外部所導入的制度性變革。 總督府的這個土地調查事業之所以可以相對順利地完成,應該是因為充分應用了日本內地已經展開過的「地租改正」之經驗及領臺前不久劉銘傳所進行過的「清賦」之基礎,而且以寬鬆的認定標準承認臺灣人的土地權利主張。因此,臺灣人當下並沒有明顯地認為自己的土地權利被侵犯。但是,為何臺灣總督府能以公債買斷傳統地主的大租權,而沒有遭受地主的強烈反抗這件事,卻還是有待研究。雖然總督府在土地調查事業中導入了土地制度的變革(例如,導入個人主義式的土地所有權),但是臺灣社會卻也自有自己的應對方式,總督府也妥協性地承認原有的土地「共有」、「公有」形式。
The Japanese colonial government of Taiwan carried out the "Land Survey Project" (tochi chōsa jigyō) between 1898 and 1905. This article explores the process of this project, including topographical investigation, compilation of land cadasters, and land-tax reform, from its commencement, to the revolutionary transformation of Taiwan's land system, and how the Taiwanese society adapted to such external and institutional changes. The success to the colonial government's Land Survey Project can be attributed to two factors: first, experiences based upon Japanese Land Tax Reform (chisokaisei) and Liu Ming-chuan's land survey; second, recognition of land rights of Taiwanese holders with relatively loose standards. As such, colonial government avoided disputes from the Taiwanese who felt their land rights being encroached on. Nevertheless, the reason why the colonial government could buy up traditional large-rent rights with government bonds without strong opposition from the landlords requires more research. Although the introduction and adoption of institutional changes to the Taiwanese land system, for instance, individual and exclusive right to land, was extremely different from traditional land custom in Taiwan, Taiwan society also made her way in gaining official compromise over rights to land in the form of joint ownership and public ownership.
Other Identifiers: D778DAEB-8BF8-1A7C-EA6D-2599CB952938
Appears in Collections:師大台灣史學報

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