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Title: 理學中的寂感型態及其意義
Other Titles: Theoretical Types and Meanings of Still and Induction in Neo- Confucianism
Authors: 許朝陽
Hsu, Chao-yang
Issue Date: Jun-2015
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract: 《周易.繫辭上10》曰:「《易》,无思也,无為也,寂然不動,感而遂通天下之故。非天下之至神,其孰能與於此?」宋明儒者喜以此句言道德本心體用不二。考察此句原意,本指蓍卦無心,因筮者占問而示之感通。漢代易注對此大抵以陰陽動靜之氣化現象解之。從人心感動而言,氣化式理解亦合於先秦漢代的傳統。即便是孟子講良知發用,亦不能忽略境遇外緣的重要性,「以羊易牛」章可為例證。然而,良知感發若需外緣境遇,隨境遇有無,其發用就有隱顯斷續之可能。為保證其恒常存在,宋明儒喜以超越義成立道德本體,於是動而無動靜而無靜。此本體既超越於現象之生滅動靜,貫徹下來,乃能言即寂即感、寂感一如,濓溪、陽明、龍溪等人可為代表。不過,人的實然之心往往善惡雜存、性氣雜流,未必即能如理而行。如何保證當下一念必為良知而不混情識,這就另成問題。於是,保守者遂退一步,而視「即寂即感」境界為有待來茲。或主敬,使後天氣心貞定凝聚;或主歸寂,由後天跨入先天。朱子、雙江、念菴分別可為代表。此外,從超越本體而言即寂即感、寂照不二、甚至無知無物,其實也有趨近佛家思想的可能,此則為理學理論建構始料未及之處。
The Yi-jing(The Book of Change) says that the Yi is originally still but acting after being inducted. Confucians in Song and Ming dynasties like to explain the consistency of the noumenon and phenomena. However, in the annotation by Han Confucians, the words are just comprehended in the angle of empirical phenomena. On the mental activity, the empirical interpretation is also consistent with the tradition. Even Mencius cannot neglect the importance of condition relevant to the presentation of conscience. The chapter of “exchanging the cow with the goat” is a good example. However, if the presentation of conscience is dependent on conditions outside, it will not be successive. In order to ensure the constancy of morality, Confucians in Song and Ming dynasties are inclined to suppose the existence of transcendent noumenon, which is beyond the trace of action and tranquil. Thus, the phenomena will become acting but still simultaneously within the noumenon. Lian-xi, Yang-ming, and Long-xi can be representatives. On the other hand, in consideration of that people’s thought are empirically mixed with good and evil, conservatives postpone the ideal state in the future. Zhuzi, Shuang-jiang, and Nian-an can be representatives. Furthermore, there will be similarity between Confucianism and Buddhism in the ideal state, which is an unexpected result of Neo- Confucianism.
Other Identifiers: 182E3914-291B-65CB-30C3-76A356A58142
Appears in Collections:國文學報

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