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Time and Order Scheduling of Summary Knowledge of Results
An Examination of Recency Effect
|Abstract:||摘要結果獲知（summary knowledge of results, SKR）是指完成預定練習次數後，才逐一告知先前數次試作結果之回饋。過去研究並未探究SKR內容中涉及動作記憶的時間與順序問題。本研究旨在探討SKR內容中與記憶有關的時間對動作表現與學習的影響。實驗一與實驗二各有36名大學生，實驗工作為準確性拋擲動作；兩個實驗皆於獲得期進行72次及保留測驗12次的試作，且獲得期的準確分數與實驗二的變異誤差（VE）值皆以3（組別）× 12（區間）混合設計二因子變異數分析，其中區間為重複量數；以單因子變異數考驗保留測驗的準確分數與改變分數。實驗一針對時間的遠近效應，檢驗個體對最後出現的動作記憶；參加者隨機分派至時近組、時遠組或無KR組；結果發現時近組準確分數在保留測驗顯著高於時遠組；而且時近組的改變分數在獲得期顯著高於時遠組。實驗二探討SKR內容的順序；參加者隨機分派至SKR正序組、反序組或KR100%組；結果發現SKR反序組的準確分數在保留測驗顯著高於SKR正序組與KR100%組；KR100% 組的VE值在獲得期顯著低於SKR反序組；而且SKR反序組的改變分數在獲得期顯著高於SKR正序組。本研究的結論是：一、提供動作記憶時間最近一次的結果，利於動作準確性的學習；二、動作表現結果提供的順序由最近至最遠的反序，雖然不利於穩定性，卻利於動作準確性的學習。因此，時近效應是SKR內容中，有利於動作學習的重要因素。|
Summary knowledge of results (SKR) refers to feedback provision about a series of trials after completion of the last trial. Previous studies did not explore the motor memory issues related to time series and orders in SKR. This study examined the recency effects related to the memory in SKR. Thirty six university students served as participants in experiment I and II. For both experiments, throwing for accuracy was required. The acquisition accuracy scores and variable error (VE) were analyzed by 3 (Groups) � 12 (Blocks) mixed design ANOVA with repeated measures. Accuracy scores and change score in retention test were analyzed by one-way ANOVA separately for both experiments. Experiment I examined the motor memory on time series in SKR. Participants were randomly assigned into one of the recency, primacy, and no-KR groups. Results revealed that recency group had significantly higher accuracy score than that of primacy group in retention test. Furthermore, recency group had significantly higher change score than primacy group in acquisition phase. Experiment II examined the orders in SKR. Participants were randomly assigned into one of the SKR in reverse order, SKR in obverse order and KR 100% groups. The results showed that SKR in reverse order group had significantly higher accuracy scores than those of SKR in obverse order and KR 100% groups in retention test. KR 100% group had lower VE than SKR in reverse order group in acquisition phase. Furthermore, SKR in reverse order group had significantly higher change score than SKR in obverse order group in acquisition phase. Findings from this study suggested that 1. The provision of motor memory may facilitate the movement accuracy, and 2. The near to distant reverse orders on movement outcome was found benefit for accuracy, rather than for stability. Thus, recency effect in SKR is a critical factor in motor learning.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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