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The Effects of Bandwidth KR on the Acquisition of Spatial Accuracy and Error Detection in a Golf Putting Task
|Abstract:||本研究旨在探討不同「特定範圍結果獲知」對高爾夫推桿動作之空間準確 性與錯誤偵察的影響。實驗參加者為32名大學女生，平均年齡為22.3 歲，隨機分派到：BW0%組、BW5%組、BW10%組或BW15%組等四組 之中。參加者在接受不同實驗處理後的十分鐘及隔天，各進行一次保留測驗。 本研究之依變項為動作距離的變異誤差、正確試做比率、主觀與客觀表現的相 關。實驗所得之變異誤差經混合設計二因子變異數分析與杜凱氏法進行考驗 後，發現：在獲得期的變異誤差，只有區間的主要效果達顯著差異，顯示各組 的動作穩定度皆有隨著練習次數的增多，而有獲得改善的趨勢。在保留期的變 異誤差則是區間與組別的主要效果皆達顯著差異，顥示各組的動作穩定度在延 遲保留上，有明顯的退步情形，但BW10%組的整體動作穩定度優於其他三 組。而正確試做比率以X�散峟p法進行比率同質性考驗後，發現BW10%組在 立即保留的正確試做比率上顯著地高於BW0%與BW15%組，同時，在延遲 保留也顯著高於其他三組：另外， 客觀與主觀表現的相關，經雪費爾Z轉換法 進行考驗後，發現BW10%組與BW5%組在立即保留上顯著高於其他二組， 且BW10%組持續此效果至延遲保留上，仍顯著高於其他三組。本研究經從 「阻斷假說」觀點討論後，獲得二個結論：(一)提供不同程度的特定範圍結果獲 知，會影響動作空間準確性的學習；(二)提供不同程度的特定範圍結果獲知，對 於提立學習者錯誤偵察的能力，會有不同的影響。|
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different bandwidth knowledge of results on the acquisition of spatial accuracy and error detection capabilities in a golf putting task. Thirty two university female students (mean age=22.3 years) served as participants and were randomly assigned to one of the followings： BW0% group, BW5% group, BW10% group or BW15% group. Ten-minute and one- day retention tests were administered after experimental treatments. The dependent variables were variable ereor (VE), proportion of correct trials(PCT). correlation of objective and subjective error (COSE) scores. Mixed tow-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD method showed significant main effects on trail blocks in VE during acquisition. All groups' movement consistency persistently improved with practice. In retention tests, significant main effects on both trail blocks and groups in VE were found. This revealed all groups' movement consistency significantly decreased in the delay retention test, but BW10% group movement consistency was more higher than the other three groups. X �� test was also found that BW10% group had significantly higher PCT than that in BW0% group and BW15% group in the immediate retention test. Moreover, BW10% group also had higher PCT than that in the rest of three groups in the delay retention test. Fisher's z transformation found that both BW10% group and BW5% group had significantly higher COSE than that in the other two groups in the immediate retention test. The results were discussed in terms of blocking hypothesis. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that, (1) different bandwidth KR affect the acquisition of spatial accuracy； (2) different bandwidth KR had various effects on the development of learners' error detection capabilities.
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