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Title: 馬克思主義的道德發展論
Other Titles: Marxist's Theory of Moral Development
Authors: 沈六
Issue Date: Jun-1999
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系
Department of Civil Education and Leadership, NTNU
Abstract:      馬克斯主義對人性有兩個基本信念,第一就是相信兒童天生是既非不道德亦非道德的。道德價值完全從兒童成長過程中的環境而獲得。第二就是相信人類不是天生自私的,或者,從人類的原始本性而言,至少如果他們傾向於做一些利於他們自己的福祉勝於他人時,這種傾向可透過教育的方法加以克服,人類可以學習成為利他主義者,並將此特質內化於他們的人格中,當作一種主要的道德價值,此種道德價值就會引導他們的社會互動。馬克期主義重視社會經驗對道德發展的影響,不認為道德發展是心靈的運思。因此,在人類道德形成條件之原因的辯論上,馬克斯主義偏重在環境論。他們認為當個人每天表現其行動時,則個人所居住的環境被認為對個人的道德價值和行為具有主要的影響力。如此,人類道德發展的差異,可藉養育人類的社會環境來說明。道德發展從幼兒時期延伸到生命結束為止,而人生的第一個二十年被認為具有特殊的影響力。 Vygotsky 以馬克斯的主張為開始,認為人類的心靈內容和思考模式由他們所從事的活動所建構,即人類每天的行動決定他們的思考方式。因此,形成人類道德信念的思考方式,就是使他們從事令人滿意的活動方式。根據此項假定來運思,Vygotsky 和 Elkonin 創立人類生命前二十年的六個道德發展階段的特徵,每一階段以一個主要的活動為特色,此活動就是支配此階段行為的核心。從某一主要的活動改變到另一活動,則會引起一個人生命知覺的改變,同時亦發展出從某一階段轉移至次一階段的訊息。其六個道德發展階段的觀點如下:1. 在幼兒與成人之間直覺的和情緒的接觸的活動(出生至一歲)2. 物體操作活動(一歲至三歲)3. 玩遊戲的活動(三歲至七歲)4. 學習活動(七歲至十一歲)5. 社會溝通活動(十一歲至十五歲)6. 職業學習活動(十五歲至十七歲)在馬克斯主義的理論中,養成兒童正確的道德發展的關鍵,在於在兒童成長的每一階段提供適當的活動,而且那些活動要能賦予未成熟者,在一個馬克斯主義的社會中正確運思所需要的各類型的道德價值。馬克斯主義進一步假定人性中的利己主義並非是不變的、天生的人性特質。共產主義的社會體制培養利他主義,強調眾人的利益。如此,要將人民從利己主義改變為利他主義,就需要藉教育和懲罪的手段,強加推行非自私的行為,直到人民為了所有人的福利,欣然接受自我犧牲的原則。
Marx adopted Hegel's notion as a way to explain the development of societies. He proposed that societies evolve through a process of resolving dialetic confrontation that are created by technological innovation in the production and distribution of material goods. This was a theory of dialectical materialism. Moral volue embedded in communist doctrine can be extracted from Maxxist writings in the form of rights, obligatins, and rejected policies. Marx and Engels were theorists who would analyze the structure of societies and identify the goals and general outlines of a just and egalitarian social order in which everyone has a voice and receives equal benefits. But neither of them was equipped to carry out the practical implementation of their vision. The task of implementation fell to such political leaders as Lenin and Stalin in the Soviet Union, Mao in China, and Tito in Yugoslavia. The principal architect of the Soviet version of human development was L.S. Vygotsky. He necessarily began with Marx's contention that the contents of people's minds and their moades of thinking are constructed from the activities in which they engage. Hence, if people's daily acts determine how they think, then the way to fasion their mentalities--including their moral convictions--is to engage them in desirable activities. Operating from this assumption, Vygotsky and D.B. Elkonin created a six-stage description of mental development extending over the first two decades of life. The best-known version of the stages contains the following six levels: 1.the activity of intuitive and emotional contact between the child and adults (birth to age 1).2.Object-manipulation activity (early preschool years, ages 1 to 3).3.Game-playing activity (later preschool years, ages 3 to 7).4.Learning activity (elementary-school years, ages 7 to 11).5.Social-communication activity (early adolescence, ages 11 to 15).6.Vocational-learning activity (later adolescence, ages 15 to 17).The key to fostering
Other Identifiers: B8003F95-0ECA-01B5-8D21-B35C891A4130
Appears in Collections:公民訓育學報

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