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Title: 德國改革教育學者P. Petersen「共同體」(Gemeinschaft)概念之探究
Other Titles: An Analysis on P. Peterson’s Concept of Community
Authors: 張淑媚
Shu-Mei Chang
Issue Date: Sep-2015
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學教育學系
Department of Education,National Taiwan Normal University
Abstract: 德國改革教育學者P. Pe t e r s e n 在二十世紀初期推動了以「共同體」(Gemeinschaft)為核心的耶納計畫學校(Jenaplan-Schule),以此改革傳統的學校教育。然而,此一深具改革理念的學校在納粹時期卻弔詭地屈從於納粹政權之下。基於探究Petersen此一教育學矛盾的研究動機,本文主要目的在釐清Petersen「共同體」概念所產生的爭議。研究者立基於詮釋學的方法,進而論證Petersen的核心教育思想「共同體」如何在二十世紀初突破了傳統學校裡只重知識灌輸、偏乎人格教育的弊端。然而,因為此一「共同體」概念並未區分教育與政治的不同,產生過度美化教育共同體、共同體的應用缺乏政治判準與偏忽個人性的發展等缺失,才造成Petersen的教育學在納粹政權下遭到扭曲與誤用。最後,研究者抽繹出對教育的啟示,即除了陶冶學生合群的人格之外,促進學生個別的批判思考能力、發展學生參與公眾討論的能力與行動力,也是民主社會中必備的教育素養。
This article enquires into the understanding of P. Peterson’s concept of community. On the one hand, it is a very influential one and considered to be very critical and progressive in terms of school education reform in the early 20th century. It is, on the other hand controversial because of its association with Nazism. In light of Peterson’s hermeneutic account, the article contends that his core idea of Gemeinschaft does pioneer a new teaching approach by reforming the traditional teaching model which merely focuses on facilitating students in their quest for knowledge and ignores the whole-person development of students. The idea of Gemeinschaft, however, trapped in his theoretical framework, does not distinguish between the political and educational aspects. As a consequence, the non-differentiation leads the reform to a biased glorification of education community and a failure of political sensibility and individual development, and finally leaves it vulnerable to political abuse. The article accordingly argues that the reassessment of P. Pertersen’s Theory on Gemeinschaft can reveal new critical possibilities for thinking about Taiwan’s school education reform, namely aside from cultivating social personality we should also promote students’ critical thinking and their capacity for active democratic participation.
Other Identifiers: 6DA34D08-91D7-083E-3456-B1CCF0630D49
Appears in Collections:教育研究集刊

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