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Title: 音樂與色彩-梅湘與頻譜樂派的色彩觀與音響思維
Other Titles: Music and color-Color View and Sound Concept of Olivier Messiaen and the School of Spectral Music
Authors: 連憲升
Hsien-Sheng Lien
Issue Date: May-2015
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學音樂學院
College of Music, NTNU
Abstract: 1944 年法國作曲家梅湘(Olivier Messiaen, 1908-1992)在他出版的《我的音樂語言的技巧》(Technique de mon langage musical)中,明揭他對於音樂的「時間」層面:節奏的關懷,戰爭期間完成於集中營的作品《為時間終結的四重奏》(Quatour pour la Fin du Temps, 1940-41)即展現了他在書中所闡述的節奏理論。節奏之外,梅湘作品中的和聲色彩與管弦樂音色更是他音樂的主要特色,梅湘中期名作《時間的色彩》(Chronochromie, 1959-60)即呈現出他作品中處理「時間」與「色彩」的匠心獨運。作為音樂教師,梅湘於巴黎高等音樂院常年開授的「音樂分析與美學」課程作育了當代許多傑出的音樂家。在這些學生中尤以格里塞(Gerard Grisey, 1946-1998)和穆海爾(Tristan Murail, 1947 生)等人所開創的「頻譜樂派」(Musique spectrale)最能承繼梅湘在「時間」與「色彩」的關懷並加以發展,對後代作曲家產生深遠影響。梅湘在其晚年著作《節奏、色彩與鳥類學論》(Traité de Rythme, de Couleur, et d’ornithologie)的最後一卷,系統性地討論了他對於「聲音與色彩」的看法,並以他獨特的調式理論與和聲、配器手法具體闡述了他音樂中豐富的色彩處理。而梅湘在其教學生涯晚年培育出的當代法國「頻譜樂派」作曲家,其中又以穆海爾在此方面深受梅湘影響,並於其作品中特別著重音響色彩的處理。延續個人對於梅湘和頻譜樂派之時間觀與節奏論的探討,本文嘗試梳理梅湘與穆海爾對於「聲音與色彩」此一論題的特殊關懷與主要論述,並透過梅湘的《神的靈在的三個小禮拜式》(Trois petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine, 1943-44)和穆海爾的《夕陽十三色》(Treize Couleurs du Soleil Couchant, 1978)等作品,探討這兩代作曲家在和聲手法和音響思維的傳承與差異。
In Technique of My Musical Language, Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992) clearly presents his personal interest in “time” and “rhythm.” They are perfectly embodied in his Quatour pour la Fin du Temps (1940-41) written in a prisoner-of-war camp of German armies during the Second World War. In addition to rhythm, the particularity of Messiaen’s music consists of his treatment of harmonic color and orchestral timbre. Messiaen’s Chronochromie (1959-60) epitomizes his unique perception on these two elements, “time” and “color.” As a teacher, Messiaen inspired a number of musicians in his famous class of “Musical Analysis and Aesthetic” at the Conservatoire of Paris. In the 1970’s, two of his pupils, Gérard Grisey (1946-1998) and Tristan Murail (1947-) established and developed the “Spectral School,” which continues to advocate the master’s interests in time and color and inspire many young composers. This paper focuses on Messiaen’s discourse on “sound and color” published in the last volume of his Traité de Rythme, de Couleur, et d’ornithologie. By analyzing works such as Trois petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine (1943-44), I discuss the methods Messiaen used to treat the harmony and color in his works. Secondly, we will analyze the representative works of “Spectral School,” such as Treize Couleurs du Soleil Couchant (1978) by Tristan Murail, to determine the relationship between “spectral music” and the ideas of Messiaen, especially in the domain of color. The paper concludes by showing the influence of Messiaen upon Murail as well as their differences in their treatments of harmony and the ideas of sound.
Other Identifiers: 5FB56D98-DD5A-6574-952A-DFE26266371F
Appears in Collections:音樂研究

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