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The Elementary School$S Teachers of Colonial Taiwan
|Abstract:||本文以1910年前後一個國語學校畢業的公學校教師──張式穀為中心，考察其在殖民政權設定的框架中如何摸索「發達」的道。 張式穀於日本領台時，大約正好是入學年齡，可以說是台灣第一代可以完整接受新式教育的地方菁英。除了當醫師之外，在1910年代之前，升學國語學校、畢業後回故鄉擔任公學校教師，是台灣地方菁英的最好選擇。但是1910年代以後，由於社會各種產業迫切需求人材，許多青年教師受到吸引而放棄教職，轉行從事實業，開啟與公學校教師完全不同的人生，其後以各種形式飛黃騰達。 張式穀於1920年離開教職，進入基層行政體系擔任庄長，1930年代以後成功轉成工商業界人士，同時成為台灣總督府以專賣利權拉攏的對象。這些不同時期人生進路的選擇，很明顯的都與殖民統治機制的變化有關，同時也都相當程度的受到統治當局的規範與限制。 張式穀模式特別適用於1890年前後出生，在日本領台時正好達到入學年齡的世代。這個世代中多數的受新教育者，很可能是像張式穀這樣，憑著一身的學識、能力，在地方社會、而且只在地方社會中活動，在總督府設定的框架中，累積自己的實力、摸索發達的道路。|
Zhang Shigu was a school teacher in an elementary public school in Xinzhu prefecture during the 1910s. This paper looks into Zhang Shigu’s biography and his career development as a case study to examine the institutional channels of upward social mobility offered by the Japanese colonial government. Meanwhile, Zhang’s career development also provides us a model for understanding Taiwanese local elites’ ’ladder of success’ within the colonial system. Zhang was in his school age when Japan began the colonial rule in Taiwan, and thus belonged to the first generation of local elites who received new colloquium. Other than becoming a practicing doctor, another best option for the new educated local elites before 1910s was that one entered the teacher’s college and returned home to take the job as a school teacher at one’s home town after graduation. Around 1910s, there emerged new opportunities in many social sectors as Taiwan developed. Many young school teachers left their teaching jobs, took these new opportunities and changed their careers. Zhang followed this track and left his teaching position in 1920. He then joined the local administration and was in charge of the village affairs. Later on he invested in business and developed a successful career in commerce. He also became a charter in colonial government’s monopolized industries. The Japanese colonial government granted such interests to those who had influence for earning their cooperation. Looking into these different choices Zhang had made on his path of upward social mobility, it obviously revealed that the ladder of success of his climbing was provided by the changing colonial policies at various moments and was too conditioned by the regulations and limits intrinsic to the colonial rule.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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