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Title: 近代漢語非典型被字句研究
The Non-Standard Bei Sentences in Modern Chinese
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學國文學系
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 受到西方語言的影響,至今仍有許多學者認為漢語的被動句「在被動詞的 後面都是沒有賓語的,因為受事者已轉為主語」,本計畫所延續前人「非典型被 字句」的稱法,即是這種觀念之下的產物。「非典型被字句」的表面形式為“被 +施事+Vt O / Vi ”,受事或出現於及物動詞之後,或者根本沒有受事,「被」 字後頭的論元結構完整無缺。過去,學者咸認為這一類句子沒有主語,以「無 主語被字句」或「零被句」稱之。根據目前的研究成果看來,一些相關的問題 已獲得解決,惟句法結構方面的論述不甚理想,隨之而起的爭議便是和「被」 字語意有關的「不幸遭受」義所指對象為何?我認為要分析漢語的被字句,在 觀念上必須某些程度地揚棄印歐語被動句的結構框架,直接就漢語的類型特色 加以分析;而要解釋非典型被字句的結構則又不得不從「被」字表示被動的典型 結構著手。這種從典型到非典型的探索工作自然牽涉漢語史上被動句發展歷程 的勾勒;此外,我們透過現今方言材料的補充與參較,更能確實掌握非典型被 字句的特色。總之,這項研究的主題與方法皆具有類型學上的重要意義。
Due to the influence of Western linguistics, a number of scholars to this date still believe that in Chinese passive sentences “there is no object after he passive verb because the patient has already become the subject”. This term “non-standard bei sentences” used in this project is a product of such an understanding of passive constructions in Chinese. The surface structure of “non-standard bei sentences” is “bei (被)+ agent+Vt O/ Vi”, with the object either appearing after a transitive verb or not at all and a complete argument structure following the word bei. In the past, scholars, unanimous in their view that there was no subject in these sentences, have labeled these sentences “subjectlessbei sentences” or “zero- bei sentences”. As the result of recent research, while some related issues have already been resolved, there still has not been a satisfactory explanation of the semantic structure of these sentences. At issue in this discussion is who the referent of the “unfortunate experience” expressed in relation to the passive bei is. We believe that in order to analyze Chinese sentences using bei, it is necessary to some degree to put the idea of the passive construction in Indo-European languages to one side and discuss this structure in terms of categories found in the Chinese language itself. Likewise, in order to explain the structure of “non-standard bei sentences”, it will be necessary to begin from the standard structure of passive sentences using the word bei. Naturally, a discussion of the shift from standard to non-standard sentences must make reference to the historical development of passive constructions in the Chinese language. In addition, we will also use examples taken from modern Chinese dialects to offer further elaboration and as a basis of comparison in order to get a better understanding of “non-standard bei sentences”. In conclusion, the topic dealt with in this project and the methodology used will have important consequences for our understanding of Chinese typology.
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0141_04_002
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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