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Title: 戴震的氣化人性論(III-I)
Dai Zhen$S Theory of Qi-Based Human Nature(Iii-I)
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學國文學系
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 本計畫將分別從出土文獻與斯賓諾莎哲學兩個研究視角討論戴震的「氣化人性論」。從 湖北荊門的郭店楚簡〈性自命出〉、〈唐虞之道〉等篇看來,戴震「以氣論性」的思路與 戰國中期的儒者遙相呼應。戴震的「氣化人性論」志在返回他心目中的孔孟之道,而他 對孟子的詮釋無意間卻回到了孟荀之前儒者的人性觀點。於是戴震引用〈樂記〉的「血 氣心知」作為人性論的核心概念,亦非偶然,他以氣學的進路重構儒學,正好暗合了孔 孟之間儒者「即生言性」的思路。為了追溯戴震「氣化人性論」在先秦儒家的思想譜系, 筆者將考察戴震的《中庸補注》如何詮釋子思的思想,並且對比此一詮釋與竹簡中「道 始於情」、「情生於性」、「節脂膚血氣之情」等從自然生命來理解性的觀點。為了進一步 在理論上闡釋戴震的「氣化人性論」,筆者將借用斯賓諾莎哲學,思索戴震氣學進路的 人性論如何調解理性和情欲之間的張力問題。斯賓諾莎從連續性的發展觀點詮釋身體∕ 心靈、欲望∕理性、自然∕必然的相互關係,除了化解笛卡兒身心二元論的難題,也立 足於自然人性論思考欲望、幸福與德性的關聯。若能暫時懸擱東西方哲學在問題意識上 各自內在脈絡的獨特性,戴震的「氣化人性論」可以藉由斯賓諾莎的身心理論及自然哲 學得到新的反省線索。
Dai Zhen’s(戴震) theory of Qi-based human nature presupposes holistic naturalism, where Li(理) and Qi(氣) are inseparable, and deconstructs the metaphysical dichotomy in Neo-Confucianism of Cheng Yi(程頤) and Zhu Xi(朱熹). The notion of Li in Dai Zhen’s interpretation of Pre-Qin Confucianism is different from that in Chen Yi and Zhu Xi, which represents a norm beyond human being. Dai Zhen claims that the necessity of norm is intrinsic to Nature; Li must not be detached from desire(欲). This project discusses firstly Dai Zhen’s theory of Qi-based human nature in light of the Guodian Chu Slips(郭店楚簡), which are discovered in 1993. Especially the relationship will be explained between Dai Zhen’s Zhong Yong Bu Zhu(《中庸補注》) and Xin Zi Ming Chu(〈性自命出〉). Secondly, I will discuss Dai Zhen’s concepts of Xie Qi Xin Zhi(血氣心知) and Zi Ran(自然) by means of Spinoza’s holistic naturalism.
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0140_04_002
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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