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Title: 以「俗」論杜辨析
The Criticism of Meretricious on the Poetry of Du Fu
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學國文學系
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2009
Publisher: 淡江大學中文系漢學研究中心
Abstract: 「雅俗之辨」是源於西周的文化的觀念,代表了抑制人性、回歸道德的價值觀,在文學批評上,「雅俗之辨」往往隱含了對作品偏離「中庸之道」的不滿。在中國古典詩學中,杜甫詩歌的地位固然崇高,但歷來以「俗」批評杜詩的意見卻也偶然可見,宋初楊億以「村夫子」譏議杜甫,表現了華贍典麗詩風對杜甫粗拙詩風的輕視;爾後黃庭堅等人則特別重視杜甫「化俗為雅」以救「求雅反俗」的創作風氣。此外,持「含蓄」美典論詩的批評中,杜甫詩不僅存在著粗俗與纖俗的問題,他們更進一步提出:詩人對世界體會才是雅俗之辨的原則。王夫之以「現量」、「關情」等觀念論詩,認為杜詩對宇宙生化的體會不足且過度表現自我,破壞了詩歌的純正與美好,是為「俗詩」,而世人皆奉杜詩為圭臬,使真詩不傳,故特以「惡紫奪朱」力詆杜詩。是知以「俗」論杜並非單純的貶抑,而反應了詩歌美學的遷變與爭論。
The "debate on elegant and unrefined taste" originated form the cultural idea in Western Zhou dynasty. This idea represents the value of suppressing human nature and returning to morals. In literary criticism, "elegant taste and unrefined taste debate" usually implies disagreement with works that deviate from "golden media." Du Fu's poems have very high reputation in classic Chinese literature. However, his poems are criticized for being unrefined sometimes. Yang Yi in early Song Dynasty once called Du Fu a "scholar in the village" with sarcasm. It shows poets whose work use elegant and elaborate language despised Du Fu's unrefined poems. fterwards, Huang Ting Jian and other writers appreciated Du Fu for "transforming unrefined language into elegance," which replaced the trend of "pursuing elegance but actually becoming unnatural instead." Moreover, Du Fu's poems leave an issue of being unrefined and inelegant for discussion in poetry criticism based on Aesthetics. They pointed out the poets' understanding of the world is the principle for the debate on elegance and inelegance. Wang Fuzhi judged poems based on the idea of Pratyrsa and the principle of the universe. He held the belief that Du Fu's poems did not have sufficient understanding about the universe and nature, and over expressed personal thoughts and feelings of the poet himself, which ruined the beauty and purity of poems, and therefore Wang regarded Du Fu's poems unrefined. He was against Du Fu's poems by saying "unconventional color purple takes over orthodox color red." Du Fu's poems were regarded as doctrines by the public, Wang however thought this made the real poems cannot be widespread and be passed down. Criticizing Du Fu's poems for being "unrefined" is not despiteful simply. It shows the transition and argument over poetry aesthetics.
ISSN: 1027-6483
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0133_01_034
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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