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Analysis of Wang Shizhen's Criticism on the Poetry of Tu Fu
|Abstract:||杜甫詩在宋代以降無論氣韻內涵、字句章法，多為後人所宗法，也影響了我國詩學崇尚雄渾、標榜才力的審美傳統。清初王士禛以清空澹遠的神韻美學領袖詩壇，論詩專取王維、韋應物一脈，隱隱然有變革我國詩學審美取向之勢。王士禛既法王、韋，主張味外味之尋覓，那麼他對長期以來被奉為正宗的杜詩，勢必有所詮解。歷來論者，多以王士禛不喜杜詩為定論，然實際上王士禛不僅沒有全面否定杜詩，亦曾對杜詩加以撳揚。據本文之分析，捳士禛對社詩態度曖昧，他巧妙地透過選本與批評，以各有領域、互勝場的方式解決杜詩與神韻說的衝突，一方面避免與詩學傳統全然決裂，一方面亦為神韻說醉取到立論的空間。由此論題延伸，乃見我國詩學始終存在著杜詩的影響，而神韻說這種在手法或語言上更接近純詩(pure poetry)的風格，反而被排擠到了邊緣，連王士禛本人在詩學上的成就，亦在杜詩龐大的影響下被間接地否定了。 是故王士禛的杜詩批評並非只是個人好惡，而有著我國詩歌美學本位之爭的意義，故本論文以「王士禛與杜詩批評」、「王士禛評杜實況」、「王士禛社詩批評的詩學意義」等章節，對上述問題稍作蠡測。|
Chinese literary circles have esteemed Tu Fu 杜甫to be the established master in poetry since the song Dynasty. His successors followed the examples of his poetry in terms of poetic style, content, syntax, as well as the method of organization. The poetry of Tu Fu set up the convention of Chinese verse that encouraged a powerful and imposing manner in writing, and advocated the creator’s talent. Among the mainstream of literary critics, Wang Shizhen 王士禛(1634-1711) upheld a new taste for poetic aesthetics. He proposed the Spiritual Mood of a poem that connoted an appealing elegance with an air of purity emptiness, and tranquil simplicity. He exemplified the poetry of Wang Wei王維and Wei Yingwe韋應物, instead of Tu Fu, to show the interest of taste beyond. As for Wang Shizhen, critics always concluded that he depreciated Tu Fu. However, the author of this paper argues that Wang Shizhen took an ambiguous attitude toward Tu Fu. On the other hand, he strove for a standpoint to present his thesis of the Spiritual Mood by means of well-advised selection and objective comments form the perspective of aesthetics. Based on this topic, it is evident that Tu Fu had a great influence on Chinese poetry, while the theory of Spiritual Mood might be closer to the style of pure poem in respect of its skill and language. Unfortunately, the literary achievements of Wang Shizhen in poetry had been edged out and denied by the mainstream of the Tu Fu School. This paper intends to re-appraise the importance of Wang Shizhen in terms of poetic aesthetics and clarify the value of Wang’s criticism on the poetry of Tu Fu.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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