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On the Theory of Ci in Wang Zhuo's Essay at Bi Ji
Wang Zhuo's（王灼）Essay at Bi Ji (碧雞漫志) is the first systematic theory of Ci(詞) . The main idea of the work is a continuation of the Confucian tradition of theory of Shi (詩) : Shi expresses intention(志 Zhi) , likewise Ci expresses intention. The accompanied music which generated the genre Ci , though being the newly emergent Banquet Music(燕樂) from Suei and Tang(隋唐) Dynasties, in his ideas should emphasize the qualities of Mean(中正) and Classicism(古意). Because his time is the time of the beginning of the newly emigrant South Sung Dynasty, he therefore sets up the Ci of Su Shi(蘇軾) as examplars in order to establish the model of proper mentality in Ci for a new evaluation theory of Ci. Besides, he concerns also the questions of schools and statures in Ci, hence the methodology of Mencius's“Knowing a Person by Knowing the Time”(知人論世) is introduced by him into the realm of Ci criticism. The visions and horizons of Wang Zhuo's Essay at Bi Ji (碧雞漫志) indeed are altogether different from the discourses of his predecessors: Li Zhi-Yi(李之儀)、Li Qing-Zhao（李清照）Tong Yang Householder(鮦陽居士), and his Essay at Bi Ji (碧雞漫志) is truly a milestone of Ci criticism in Sung(宋) Dynasty.
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