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Title: 古琴的物理結構與譜式改革
Other Titles: The Relationship between the Physical Structure and Score for the Qin
Authors: 黃鴻文
Hong-Wen Huang
Issue Date: May-2013
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學音樂學院
College of Music, NTNU
Abstract: 改革古琴減字譜之議由來已久。從明清時已有琴人在減字譜旁備列瓜子點或工尺譜,以解決旋律不明的問題;近代自王光祈以來,學者們以五線譜為主體,將更簡化的指法符號加注其上,徹底改變古琴譜式。在這些倡議中,少有人能從古琴的物理結構,也就是複雜而無規律的「一音多位」的角度來探討琴譜的改革。因為古琴的琴徽依純律而設,按音的位置則依三分損益律,後者的位置標示遷就於前者,所以才有這樣的現象。與笛子、琵琶等樂器相較,更顯得古琴的這個獨特性。特殊的物理結構,造就特殊的學習方法。如果運用一般樂器「循聲取位」的學習方法在古琴上,反而會造成嚴重的混淆與困難,反倒是「認位發聲」才是適合古琴結構的學習法;而減字譜恰是在「認位發聲」要求下的產物。新的古琴改革譜無法提供清楚的按音與泛音位置,學習者必須先學會五線譜,再另外花費精力時間去背熟每個音高的位置,這對古琴的學習來說是事倍功半的,也不利於推廣到一般大眾。樂譜除了肩負溝通與凝固音樂的責任外,最基本的功能仍是便利學習。因此,古琴譜應以減字為主體,提供位置資訊,輔以五線譜或簡譜,彌補減字譜缺乏旋律標示的不足,方能符合上述的期待。
Reforming jianzipu(減字譜) (simplified character notation) for the Qin has been an issue of contention that has lasted many centuries. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, in an attempt to solve some of the problems regarding the inadequacy of a clear pitched melody, some Qin players added to their jianzipu durational marks or phrase markings as gongche notation (工尺譜), in addition to other diacritical marks for clarification. In modern years, scholars have opted for staff notation that included a more simplified notation for finger technique, and this has totally changed the approach to scores of traditional Qin music. Along with these proposals, few commentators have discussed the actual physical structure of the Qin, which is related essentially to its original notation. Newly-reformed scores cannot adequately provide the details required to utilize these traditional techniques, and thus performers achieve little success despite much effort. Therefore, in addition to the responsibilities for communicating these details clearly, scores should provide a more basic approach that incorporates these performance issues from the older tradition. In order to mend the problems of the insufficiency for melodic sings in jianzipu, positional information should also be provided, and staff or numbered notation should be considered a secondary resource.
Other Identifiers: D489C930-BBE3-8A96-0616-04175E4779B5
Appears in Collections:音樂研究

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