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Title: Cultural and Physiological Studies of Ganoderma neo-japonicum and G. zonatum
Other Titles: 新日本靈芝和環紋靈芝純培養菌絲體之生長特性及生理狀之研究
Authors: 謝富貴
Issue Date: Jun-2004
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學生命科學學系
Department of Life Science, NTNU
Abstract: 新日本靈芝(Ganoderma neo-japonicum)分佈於台灣、中國大陸及日本,寄主為闊葉樹及竹類等,環紋靈芝(G. zonatum)產於美國佛羅里達州和喬治亞洲,其寄主侷限於棕櫚科類(plams)之樹木。本研究以台灣產新日本靈芝及美國環紋靈芝純培養菌絲體為材料,探討兩種靈芝的生菌絲(generative hyphae)均具有扣子體 (clamp connection)及腫大細胞(swelling cell),皆能分泌細胞外氧化酵素,包括漆氧化酵素(laccase)及過氧化酵素(peroxidase)。缺乏酪胺酸酵素(tyrosinase),能利用木材之木質素(lignin)、亞纖維素(hemicellulose)與纖維素(cellulose),屬於木材白腐菌(white rotting fungus)。 上述供試之兩個菌株,新日本靈芝在麥芽抽出物培養基(MEA)及馬鈴薯葡萄糖培養基(PDA)的最適生長溫度範圍皆為24~28℃,而環紋靈芝在MEA及PDA培養基的最適生長溫度範圍為32℃,兩者在溫度16℃、36℃時,生長速率皆明顯較差。新日本靈芝菌絲體適宜生長的酸鹼度範圍在Ph 2.4~6.1;而環紋靈芝在Ph4.6時生長狀況最佳。新日本靈芝對葡萄糖濃度的基本需求約40 g/L,但濃度超過 80g/L時,其菌絲乾重並不隨供給的碳源增加;環紋靈芝在葡萄糖濃度40~80g/L生長最佳。兩者的菌絲體以澱粉培養的生長表現優於以葡萄糖或蔗糖。新日本靈芝對無機氮源濃度的濃度需求不高,低無機氮源濃度(0.02N)時生長狀況較佳,對有機氮源的濃度需求為0.04~0.08N,有機氮源濃度超過0.4N時,則抑制菌絲生長。環紋靈芝在低無機氮源濃度(0.04N)時生長最佳,無機氮源濃度超過0.08N時,對菌絲的生長趨勢則漸漸下降,而對有機氮源反應則為濃度增加,生長趨勢漸佳。
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is found in Mainland China, Japan and Taiwan and grows saprotrophically on dead hardwoods or bamboos. G. zonatum is distributed only in the States of Georgia and Florida of the United States and its substrate is known only on palms. Pure cultures of G. neo-japonicum and G. zonatum were used for cultural and physiological studies. The mycelial growth characteristics of G. neo-japonicum and G. zonatum were observed as the white color on the mycelial mat’s surface, brown color on the reverse side, clamped generative hyphae and the appearance of swelling cells in culture. The positive reaction for extracellular oxidases which included laccase and peroxidase, but negative for tyrosinase, indicated both G. neo-japonicum and G. zonatum belong to white rotting fungi, and showed that they can utilize lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose of wood. The results of physiological tests were shown as follows: 1.Optimum temperature for the mycelial growth of G. neo-japonicum was at 24~28℃ on both MEA and PDA, while G. zonatum was at 32℃ both on MEA and PDA. 2.Optimum pH was 4.6 for the mycelial growth of G. zonatum. 3.Glucose concentration at 40~80 g/L was the optimal condition for the mycelial growth of G. neo-japonicum and G. zonatum. Increasing glucose concentration neither increased nor decreased the mycelia growth rate of G. neo-japonicum, but decreased the mycelial growth rate of G. zonatum. 4.Starch was the best carbon source for both mycelial growth of G. neo-japonicum and G. zonatum. 5.Optimal nitrogen concentration of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) was at 0.02 N for the mycelial growth of G. neo-japonicum, and 0.04 N for G. zonatum. The mycelial growth of G. zonatum was in proportion to the concentration of L-Asparagine (organic nitrogen form), but was not for G. neo-japonicum.
Other Identifiers: F85B81B7-FB25-75B0-93D9-C183B0965457
Appears in Collections:生物學報

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