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|Title:||Tracing the Origin of Chilades pandava (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) Found at Kinmen Island Using Mitochondrial COI and COII Genes|
|Other Titles:||利用粒線體COI 及COII 序列追溯金門島上蘇鐵綺灰蝶 (Chilades pandava) 的來源|
David C. Lees
Department of Life Science, NTNU
|Abstract:||2007年7月首次在金門島上發現蘇鐵綺灰蝶 (Chilades pandava)，並觀察到此蝴蝶造成園藝蘇鐵 (Cycas revoluta) 的觀葉組織嚴重損害，進而影響蘇鐵的觀賞價值。雖然蘇鐵綺灰蝶在同年12月後消失匿跡，但是2008 及2009 年7 月又再次發現，並且持續一段數月後才消失。在2007 年之前，雖然金門島上有少量零星園藝種蘇鐵植株，島上的物種調查卻未有蘇鐵綺灰蝶的紀錄。金門島上的蘇鐵綺灰蝶的出現原因可能有二：1) 近年來金門大量栽種蘇鐵作為行道樹或美化環境之用，蘇鐵綺灰蝶隨著園藝蘇鐵從台灣引入；2) 引入栽種的蘇鐵雖然未發現蘇鐵綺灰蝶，但是卻提供大陸地區的蘇鐵綺灰蝶額外的資源並在金門建立新的族群。因此，為了暸解金門島上蘇鐵綺灰蝶的來源，我們利用粒線體COI 及COII 的序列分析165 個包括金門、大陸沿岸及台灣島上的樣本。結果顯示，大陸所具有的基因型 (haplotype) 明顯與台灣不同，而且兩地區所具有的基因型在網狀親緣關係中 (haplotype network) 也各自成群。而金門島上81 個樣本共檢測出5 個COI 基因型及11 個COII 基因型，大部分的基因型可以在大陸地區發現，但是沒有一個基因型與台灣的相同。這個證據支持金門島上的蘇鐵綺灰蝶族群源自中國大陸。此外，採自金門島上三次不同年份的樣本，其遺傳組成比例皆不相同，顯示此蝶種在金門地區的變動性頗大。而COI 的分析結果與COII 相似，同為鑑別台灣及大陸地區蘇鐵綺灰蝶的良好分子標記。|
Recent outbreaks of the Cycad Blue, Chilades pandava, have caused severe damage to Cycas plants,affecting their horticultural value. In July of 2007, this butterfly pest was recorded for the first time from Kinmen, offshore of Fujian, where it has caused substantial damage to the ornamental cycad, Cycas revoluta planted on this island. This Cycad Blue colony disappeared by December 2007, but irrupted again in 2008 and 2009. Because neither the Cycad Blue nor native Cycas plants were documented in Kinmen before ornamental cycads were introduced from Taiwan, the origin of the Cycad Blue individuals found on the island was unknown. Two possible scenarios are given herein. Firstly, Cycad Blue may have been introduced via imported Cycas plants from Taiwan. Secondly, Cycad Blue may have invaded from neighboring regions in mainland China, with the planted cycads providing extra resources for colonization. To trace the source of the outbreak in Kinmen, we sequenced 165 specimens covering its neighborhood regions, including Taiwan and mainland China, for the mitochondrial COI and COII genes. Five COI haplotypes and eleven COII haplotypes were found in Kinmen. Most haplotypes were also found in southeastern China, but no haplotype found in Kinmen samples was found in Taiwan. This evidence supports a mainland Chinese origin for Cycad Blue colonies at Kinmen. Our results also show that the turnover colonies of the Cycad Blue had different genetic composition in the three sampled years. In addition, the COI dataset is concordant with the COII dataset, and both of them are considered as good markers for identifying the Cycad Blue populations between mainland China and Taiwan.
|Appears in Collections:||生物學報|
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