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Title: 大陸文革小說中的身體書寫—以余華、蘇童為例
Body Description in Cultural Revolution Novels--- Take Yu-Hua and Su-Tong as an Example
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學國文學系
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: 〈大陸文革小說中的身體書寫——以余華、蘇童為例〉 筆者近年集中處理臺灣成長小說的發展脈絡,本年度起決定由大陸方面進行雙軌觀 察。大陸成長書寫裡常見的主題,厥為「家變」、「暴力」與「性愛」。其中「家變」部 分筆者已有專書處理,至於「暴力」與「性愛」則皆與「身體」主題息息相關,本年度 起乃決定開始進行身體書寫領域的開發。 論題所謂「文革小說」,乃是指余華、蘇童小說中明確以文化大革命為時代背景的 作品;至於其他間接描述文革的作品,則作為輔助文本。至於將余華(1960-)與蘇童 (1963-)並稱,乃因二人成長地域、創作崛起時期及風格俱相近,而其童年又正逢文革 開展之初,余華、蘇童以童稚之眼觀照歷史,較之其他文革小說,因此更具備冷酷色彩 與荒誕特質。 此種荒誕特質尤其展現在身體的書寫上。余華小說中不憚其煩地展示著各種相異的 身體狀態,身體受難的過程,在余華小說中遂成為無法漠視的存在。而蘇童對於香椿街 暴力的渲染與虛構,可視為「政治身體」反映到「少年身體」的展現;對於父輩身體的 極盡色情化、肉體消亡所表現的狂歡狀態,也饒富意味。至其新作《河岸》,以身體胎 記指認的血統論,使歷史成為原罪,欲望亦是原罪,受罰的則是個人身體。 經由文本細繹,筆者意圖思考並解決的問題是:余華與蘇童的身體書寫,是否意味 著某種無可迴避的集體記憶?作家前、後期作品所展現對於文革的態度與思考,已有所 轉變,前期小說裡的灰暗視界究竟表達了什麼?後期的戲謔敘事又是否反向消解、或簡 化了身體書寫背後複雜的能量?其他如「飢餓」與「疼痛」,在小說中如何呈顯為革命 的倫理美學?酷刑如何展現為製造痛苦的量化藝術?死亡又如何進入宏大敘事,而形成 差異性問題?這些思考都饒富意義。 在余華與蘇童的文革小說裡,身體與政治、社會、權力互為糾葛,經由身體書寫, 或許我們可以提問,歷史究竟銘刻了什麼樣的痕跡在身體上?或者竟如蘇童在《河岸》 裡的反覆喟嘆:最終,「歷史是謎」?
Body Description in Cultural Revolution Novels: Take Yu-hua and Su-tong as an Example My recent research interest has been on the development of Taiwan Bildungsroman. For a contrastive study, this year I will investigate Bildungsroman in Mainland China. The common topics in Mainland China Bildungsroman are “change of home”, “violence”and “sex”, among which I have finished a book discussing “change of home”. Since the other two topics, “violence”and “sex”are both related to “body”, I will start my investigation from body description. “Cultural Revolution novels”include novels whose background is definitely Cultural Revolution. As for novels which refer to Cultural Revolution indirectly will be the auxiliary reference. The reason why I choose Yu-hua and Su-tong is because they have similar grown-up background, spring up period and writing style, and they are both born in the beginning of Cultural Revolution. Their culture observation from the eye of a child is cooler and more absurd than other Cultural Revolution novels. The absurdity is especially obvious in body description. Yu-hua’s novels display different states of body; therefore, the process of body suffering in his novels can’t be easily ignored. Su-tong’s exaggeration and fabrication about the violence in Xiangchun Street is a reflection from “body of politics”to “body of teenagers”. The pornographic description of his father’s body and the revelry of the death in his novel are also worth discussion. In his new work River Bank, blood relationship is proved by a birthmark, making history the original sin. Desire is the original sin too, and consequently the body is punished. In my analysis, I will clarify whether Yu-hua’s and Su-tong’s body description means unavoidable group memory? Besides, different stages of their novels reveal change in attitude toward Cultural Revolution. What does the cruel attitude in the early stage mean? Does banter in the later stage simplify the connotation of body description? What does “hunger”and “ache”in the novels mean? How can torture become an art of pain production? How is death presented in the times? These are some other questions worth thinking. In Yu-hua’s and Su-tong’s novels, body is entangled with politics, society and power. By way of body description, maybe we can ask: “What does history carve on body?”Or maybe as Su-tong’s sigh in River Bank, “History is mystery”?
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0126_04_003
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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