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Emperor Study of Analects in 'Classics Education of Royal Family'（經筵講義）---
Comparisons of Japanese Chinese Emperors Classic Study
|Abstract:||中國傳統的教育學，主要由：官學、私學、蒙學及帝王學等四大領域所組成。但現 今學術界從事中國教育學史研究者，大都出身於教育系或歷史系專業，由於所學專業的 差異性，大都僅止於敘述歷代的官學、私學、蒙學等領域的教育活動，皆未能觸及帝王 學與經書之間的經典教育關係，更遑論深入探討歷代經筵講義中《論語》帝王學的相關 論述。而對於《論語》一書在日本帝王養成教育中所扮演的角色，與其所發揮的功能， 甚至是日本經筵講義中，五經中不講《春秋》；四書中不講《孟子》的傳統特色，究竟 代表著何種意涵？或許因為事涉天皇、皇室，故日本學界極少涉獵。而日本以外地區的 日本漢學研究者，雖可擺脫國族限制，但至今未有該方面之研究。 為求更全面且確實地探究、釐清《論語》於近現代日本的傳播，吾人則不可捨棄對 明治2 年(1869)以還，明治天皇重開經筵講義，其中有關《論語》經筵講義的內容思想、 教育功效、教育目的、以及其欲涵塑的帝王人格、乃至其所產生的政治效應等問題，與 《論語》這部經典之間的關係這一複雜問題，進行深入研究。又因為日本宮中的經筵講 義制度，乃源自中國，而且近現代日本經筵講義重《四書》的傳統，實與朱子學於江戶 日本的隆盛有著深刻關聯，故若未能對中國宋代以還之經筵講義制度乃至歷代各朝講義 內容有所了解，則對日本經筵講義的理解則有失於片面，甚或無從看出日本經筵講義的 特殊性， 故本計畫試圖透過比較研究中國宋、元、明、清四朝，與近現代日本兩國之經筵《論 語》講義，探討《論語》於以君主為中心而對皇家所進行的帝王學教育中，究竟產生何 種教育功效、政治目的、乃至文化或政策宣傳？又中、日兩國如何選擇帝王之師？經筵 講義上之講官如何擇取經典教材以為帝王學之教育內容？以《論語》為經筵教才背後所 具有的歷史、思想脈絡，以及其所代表的文化、政治意涵究竟為何？並企圖藉此看出《論 語》在中、日傳播發展的文化史意義。|
Chinese traditional educational study is consisted by four realms: official-education, private-education, initiate-education and monarchal-education. However, the current academic scholars of Chinese education are from education or history major; because of the differences of their backgrounds, these scholars can only discuss the historical educational aspects of official-education, private-education, initiate-education, furthermore, they are unable to touch on the topics of the educational relationship between monarchal-education and education of classics, let alone explore more on the historical-relational lucubrate in Analects. On the other hand, how can we interpret the influence of Analects on the cultivation of Japanese Emperors and what perspectives that Analects brings to the Japanese culture? Besides, traditionally, in Japanese “classics education of royal family”（經筵講義）, they did not talk about “Chungiu” in Five Classics, nor did they talk about “Mencius” in Four books. One way to interpret is that because those theories involved Japanese Emperors and royal families, Japanese academic does not mention these perspectives very much. Although the Japanese-sinology scholars who reside outside of Japan are not restricted by the informal prohibition of the royal families, so far, there has not been any study conducted on this area. In order to explore more deeply in all aspects and discover the influence of “Analects” on the current Japan, I must not ignore the fact that since 1869, Emperor Meiji readdressed the importance of “Analects”. Among the readdress of Emperor Meiji, there are several focuses such as the aspects of the contents, the efficiency of education, the purposes of education, the cultivated characteristics of the Emperors, and the resultant political influences. I will explore deeply into the above aspects. Because the policy of Japanese royalty is based on Chinese system, in addition, the tradition value of modern Japanese “classics education of royal family” relates deeply to the prosperity of Edo period in Japan which Zhu-Zi imitated from; therefore, if one cannot grasp the policies after dynasty Song, then he/she cannot either grasp the whole aspects of the Japanese “classics education of royal family” or discover the specialty of it. Therefore, this proposal will try to get conclusions on what Analects brings to the efficacy of education, political purpose, and even to the cultural or political propagation. The conclusions will be inspected through the comparisons of the emperor educations in Chinese dynasties of Song, Uan, Ming, Qing and recent Japanese royalty. Some other focuses will be how China and Japan chose their teachers for the emperors, and how the teachers chose study guides for their emperors. Last of all is to discover the representations of Analects in history, in social thoughts development, in culture and in politics; in sum, it is hoped to be able to discover the true meaning of the influence of Analects in Japanese and Chinese cultures.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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