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Title: 作為帝王教科書的《論語》-宋代《論語》經筵講義探析
The Analects of Confucius as the Emperor's Textbook--The Analysis of the Lectures for Emperors on the Analects of Confucius in the Sung Dynasty
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學國文學系
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2010
Publisher: 國立成功大學中國文學系
Abstract: 本文就宋代之《論語》經筵講義,以《四庫全書》〈集部〉所收楊時、程俱、王十朋、袁甫、劉克莊、徐元杰等六人之《論語》經筵講義為主要研究對象,指出彼等所進講之內容思想或主張,基本上多聚焦於:為學志道、修身進德、輕利寡欲、遠佞近賢等四大議題。進而剖析經筵教育的特色有二:一是講官與受教者的帝王之間,始終有著難以親近的隔閡。二是經筵講官始終處在皇權的壓力之下,有著權力上無法逾越的分際。而前者導致講官未必可獲具一放諸四海皆準的告人主之法,導致保傅輔弼帝王之重責大任,在理想性與實際的施行上有其相當的落差;後者凸顯出帝王與講官在經筵上的權力衝突問題,在宋代知識分子之間,則以爭論廢坐講是否得宜的形式呈現出來。進而指出經筵這一帝王學習儒典的場合,常常淪為當代政壇各方角力爭相取得發言權的政治權力論述場域。最後則指出經筵講義之解經正法乃是離經言道的「有為之言」,而非追求經典原義的復現。結論則指出當經筵講師以「傳道君師」身分高尚其志,挺拔起其獨立人格,繼承「斯文在我」之自信,不受政治威權宰制時,此舉不僅逆轉了其被統治的儒臣「經師」身分,更進一步參與政治、指導帝王向善,而此乃孟子以來儒士的最佳自我定位與自我期待。
This paper aimed at the lectures for emperors on the Analects of Confucius in the Sung Dynasty by researching into Yang Shr 楊時, Cheng Jiu 程俱, Wang Shr Peng 王十朋, Yuan Fu 袁甫, Liu Ke Juang 劉克莊, Hsu Yuan Jie 徐元杰’s lectures for emperors on the Analects of Confucius which were included in Siku Quanshu 四庫全書. Their lectures focused on the four topics: to study, to cultivate morality, to renounce desire and to leave from immoral person and close to moral person. There are two features of the lectures for emperors. First, there was an estrangement between the teachers and the emperors as students. Second, the teachers were under the pressure of the emperor’s power and could not go beyond. The former procured that the teachers could not necessarily acquire a general way to advice the emperors on morality. The duty to assist the emperors was not certainly taken charge. The latter revealed the conflict between the emperors and the teachers. For the scholars in Sung Dynasty, it appeared in the question that to abolish the regulation that the teachers can sit when they lecturing is proper or not. The lectures for emperors often became the field that all influences scrambled for the power to discourse by it. The way to interpret the scriptures of the lectures for emperors was not focused on the original meaning but to talk about the “constructive words”. When the teachers insisted on being “the teacher of emperor” and set their individual personality, they changed their status and participated in the politics to teach the emperors on morality. It is the best self-identity and aspiration of Confucians after Mencius.
ISSN: 1817-0021
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0121_01_012
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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