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Status of Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors for Gout---A Case- Control Study
The aim of this matched case-control study is to explore potential dietary and other lifestyle risk factors including smoking, education, physical activity and medication use in the development of gout. This study proposed an ad hoc hypothesis that a high fat, high protein diet is associated with gout. We recruited volunteers from the Gout Clinic in Taipei Municipal Ho-Ping Hospital and also acquired their friends to be healthy controls. Total 109 male female cases and 122 controls between November 1998 to July 1999 were interviewed in person, the average interview time was about 90 minutes. Information on diet history (including a 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire), physical activity history (including work, leisure time and housework activities), smoking history, family medical history, and duration of certain diseases obtained by structured questionnaires with trained interviewers. The preliminary analyses for 92 male cases and 92 sex-age matched controls showed that cases had significantly lower education levels, lower frequencies for fruit and vegetable consumption and higher frequency for fish skin. In addition, cases had higher blood pressures, higher waist and hip circumferences and higher tricep skinfolds. Nutrients consumption from 24-hour recalls showed vegetable protein, dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and iron intakes were higher in controls than the cases. Moreover, folic intake was significantly higher, but alcohol intake was lower in controls than the cases by food frequency questionnaire (p<0.05). We found high consumption of dietary fiber (OR=0.63, CI=0.38-1.05), iron (OR=0.51, CI=0.30-0.87), vitamin C (OR=0.55, CI=0.33-0.93), vitamin A (OR=0.63, CI=0.38-1.05), vitamin B2 (OR=0.59, CI=0.35-0.99) and folic acid (OR=0.54, CI=0.32-0.90) had reverse associations with gout. The inter-relationships between anthropometric measures, medical status and diet warrant further investigation.
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