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Eros and Thanatos: Eroticism in European Cemeteries(I-III)
|Abstract:||本研究計畫擬從性愛(Eros)與死亡(Thanatos)的角度切入，分析歐洲文學與藝術傳統中對死亡的態度演變與再現方式，耙梳其特有的愛慾生死觀，尤其將研究重點聚焦於其結合性愛與死亡的死亡之舞(danse macabre)傳統與展現在現代墓園中特有的情色風光。性與死亡之間有著令人玩味的曖昧關係。心理分析學者從中看出人性中不變的趨力，並從神話中探源。有些歷史學者則主張此曖昧關係直至十六世紀才在西方出現，屬於現代特有的感觸。在十五世紀之前死亡的主題中並未帶任何情色色彩。但從十五世紀末與十六世紀開始，同一主題卻充滿情色意涵。在十六至十八世紀，Eros 與Thanatos之間的關係開始熱絡。在死亡之舞的傳統中，死神不再偷偷地將活人帶走，死神還進一步挑逗、強暴年輕少女。性與死亡一起探戈，引人遐思。羅蜜歐與茱麗葉在Capulet家族墓園中的一幕已成經典，而在巴洛克戲劇中墓園裡的愛戀場景更是司空見慣。十九世紀吸血鬼的故事將性愛與死亡的糾葛推向另一高峰。二十世紀法國思想家巴代伊對此議題也有過一番哲思。直至今日，歐洲墓園中特有的情色旖妮風光仍針對性與死亡的主題持續對話發聲。情色偏愛遠離塵囂、寧靜、私密的場域，而墓園正好提供一個理想的異域他方，一個幾乎是「彼岸」的不同世界。 本計畫擬分三年進行。第一年有系統地研讀、分析歐洲文學中對死亡的不同想像與再現方式。第二年則觀察在歐洲Memento Mori的傳統下，歐洲藝術如何面對、處理人必有一死的困境。第三年則將研究重點聚焦於歐洲文化中結合性與死亡的特有傳統，並以其墓園中的情色為研究重點。|
This project intends to analyze, from the dual perspectives of Eros and Thanatos, the evolution of the representations of death in European Arts and Literature, with a focus on the Danse macabre and its modern counterparts in the modern European cemeteries. Eros and Thanatos have long enjoyed an ambiguous relationship in the West. Psychoanalysis find in them a constant drive, as evidenced in several myths. Some historians argue that this ambiguity, as part of the modern sensibilities, had not existed until the sixteenth century. We did not see any erotic element in the representations of death before that period. However, between the 16th and 18th centuries, Eros and Thanatos were frequently seen as dancing partners, tangoing with each other. Love in the graveyard or cemetery was popular in literary pieces during this period; that between Romeo and Juliet is by far the most well-known. In the 19th century, sex and death meet again in the stories concerning the vampire. In the 20th century, Georges Bataille also had some serious philosophical thinking on this subject. Up until today, the dialogue between Eros and Thanatos continues in the eroticism in some of the European cemeteries, as Eros prefers secrecy and cemetery offers exactly such an ideal “other” world. The research project will be carried out in three years: in the first year, I will read and analyze systematically how death is imagined and represented in some representative European literature. The second year will deal with the Memento Mori tradition in European Arts. The third year will focus on how Eros and Thanatos are unified in European cemeteries in erotic ways.
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