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Title: 分數主義下的學習困境與出路
Authors: 呂枝益
Issue Date: Apr-1999
Publisher: 師資培育與就業輔導處
Office of Teacher Education and Careers Service
Abstract:      本文旨在揭露植基於分數取向的學校教育,其在學生學習上所深藏的隱憂,且進而提出改進的方法。本文主要以「學習動機」和「能力競逐」為討論範圍。文中分以下兩部分:首先,探討「成績控制的弊失」與「能力競逐的負面影響」。由於考試制度下的升學需求,及行為學派學理的支持,利用成績賞罰以策勵學生學習,似乎成了學校教育過程中每位教師的法寶。然而諸多的學生學習挫敗,不得不令人質疑:「成績真能激發所有學生的學習動機?」。另者,相關研究發現,學生隨著年齡的增長,易趨於將學業表現歸因於能力因素,而學生長期的「能力歸因」與「競爭學習環境」彼此交互作用,便形塑了「能力競逐」的學習局面。在如此能力競逐的場上,究竟對誰有利?對誰有害?事實上是一起犧牲的。其次,針對以上所陳,擬從「學習動機的轉化」與「能力競逐的取替」兩方向思索此一學習困境的改進途徑,提供建言,以使教育工作人員對日後的教學有更深度精準的思考。
     The purpose of this article is to expose the hidden apprehension of students' learning in schooling process of which the grade orientation has taken root. Two ways of amelioration from "motivation to learn" and "a bility game" are main scopes to be discussed. First, exploring the defects of grade control and the negative effects of ability game are the analytec points. Owing to the needs of entering a higher school under the exam system, and the supports of theory of bebaviouism, it seems to be all teachers' magic tools using grades to inspire students to learn. However, the fact that lots of students fail to learn, which make us cannot but query: could grades really motivateall students to learn? On the other hand, related researches indicated, students gradually tend ot attribute academic performance to one's ability when they are growing up. Long-term "ability attribution" and "competitive learning condition" interactwith each other, and the two shape "ability game" learning situation. In the ability game, who reap profits? who are depressed? In fact, both could become victims. Second, in consideration of above-mentioned, to offer suggestions for improvement of learning plight from two approaches: changing motivation to learn, and replacing ability game with other alternatives, these resolution should enable educatiors to have deeper contemplation in teaching.
Other Identifiers: 32F4B241-F70E-839E-8A80-BACD1559532E
Appears in Collections:中等教育

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