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Title: Axiological Reflections on Educational Research
Other Titles: 教育研究之價值學省察
Authors: 楊深坑
Issue Date: Jun-1994
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 本文旨在探討哲學上對於價值問題之論辯及其在教育研究上的意義。價值爭論之簡要歷史回顧顯示,不同的價值立場係建基在對人、實在界以及世界之不同哲學預設,亦因而導致不同的教育研究導向。經驗論哲學傳統之事實與價值二分係以人類理性與感情心理功能二分為其基本預設,價值係人類情緒之表達,與理性無涉,自無客觀性可言。經驗—分析的教育科學即本於此價值預設將價值排除於教育研究過程之外,以獲客觀的教育知識。詮釋學的哲學傳統則以價值非僅為情緒之表達而已,而係人類生命之具體範疇之一,其間融貫了理性、感情、意志與嗜慾,教育為人類生命基本範疇,其研究自不宜將價值排除。批判的教育研究則以真正的價值存乎毫無宰制的溝通與論辯過程之中,透過此過程方可避免偏頗意識型態滲入教育研究,影響其客觀性。當代新實徵主義者,如H. Albert,W. Brezinka等,雖仍堅守價值中立原則,但已確認價值與規範係教育以及社會科學研究之主要內容。惟須將社會科學研討內容的價值敘述和方法論上價值中立的後設規範(meta-norm)作明確的區分。作為社會科學內容之價值敘述仍須通過方法論上價值中立的檢證。問題是檢證原則本身,基本上仍是研究社群中透過溝通與論辯,所達致之共通的價值預設。進一步而言,即就嚴格控制的經驗研究,研究者的價值涉入仍不可免。在進行客觀的教育研究時,研究者須隨時省察自己本身的價值立場,有此價值的自我覺知,方可避免偏頗的意識型態,強加於教育研究過程中,而使其研究更符科學客觀性的要求。
At the very beginning of his Metaphysics, Aristotle states:”All men by nature desire to know.”The natural tendency towards knowing and understanding is evidenced by men's taking delight insenses. Even apart from their usefulness, the senses are loved for themselves(Aristotle, Metaphysics, A. 980a). The activities of knowing and inquiries are thus interpreted as inseparable from man's basic feeling—love. Love is so much in Fr. Brentano as in M. Scheler the most basic spiritual force of man's evaluation”. Knowing itself is, at least in Aristotelian philosophy, related closely to valuing. Knowledge is not only instrumental, but also intrinsic value. The integration of value and knowledge was firstly challenged by David Hume who held the dichotomy of man's psychic functions into “reasoning”and "feeling”. Value statement based on“feeling”can not be deducted from the fact statement which is the connection of ideas through “reasoning”. Such a view-point is generally thought to be the origin of the devaluation of axiological study in the system of knowledge in modern neo-positivism. Value judgement is according to A.J. Ayer(1956)nothing but an expression of feeling;it can not be regarded as knowledge. Scientific activities in searching for objective knowledge are held to be free from valuating. Modern positivistic-oriented educational research, with classic physics as its paradigm, is detached from the involvement of the researcher's valuation in order to secure the objectivity.
Other Identifiers: 80077E79-1FEC-A4F7-2928-93EDE9AD3F3A
Appears in Collections:教育研究所集刊

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