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Title: Posttraditional Identity and Cultrual Pluralism
Other Titles: 後傳統認同與文化多元主義
Authors: 楊深坑
Issue Date: Jun-1995
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 本文旨在透過哈伯瑪斯(J. Habermas)溝通行動理論之概念架構,探討多元文化下建立合宜的個體認同與族群認同之可能。並以解嚴後之中華民國為例證,指陳台灣未來教育規畫,須建立在哈伯瑪斯所謂的成熟的政治文化,才能使教育幫助全體國民渡過當前價值混淆所可能帶來的認同危機。哈伯瑪斯在接受Sonning獎的演說中否定了集體認同是個人認同之集合體的說法,兩者之間是互補的。然則,民族主義卻以某特殊文化傳統的獲得,作為民族意識發展之先決條件,流於其極則有成為扼殺個人人格認同的集體主義傾向。另一方面,隨著東歐集團及前蘇聯的崩解,文化多元成為世界性的趨勢,新認同的探索以及新文化整合成為各國教育規畫上亟待面臨的課題。在一個多元文化的社會中,為使社會維繫和諧穩定發展,須有一種文化的整合,俾免社會分崩離析。然則,文化整合又宜避免某一傳統宰制整個文化,以免流於集體主義,厄阻個體成長。為為臻於此,哈伯瑪斯提出了理想溝通社群之設計,在此社群中,個體認同的特殊性,可以在普遍主義的群體架構下,自律地表現自己。這樣的社群須以民主法治的憲法架構為先決條件,在此架構下,不同的生活方式才可能平等共存,個體也才能無偏先的對他人開放,而進一步的開展一種世界性的政治溝通。
夫以眾者,此君人之大寶也。———呂不韋:呂氏春秋 Heraclitus:Fragm.B 10 Gere chtigkeit Posttraditional Identity and Cultural Pluralism---Sen-keng Yang Heißt der kunstricher Bau des Weltgewölbes, Wo Alles Eines, Eines Alles halt, Wo mit dem Einen alles sturzt und fällt. ---Fr. Schiller:Demetrius Education without wide, high and clear cultural consciousness would, as Ed. Spranger(1920:181)argues, remain a limited craft. History of education must be also history of culture. The structure of education reflects the cultural consciousness and codes prevailing in the historical situation where the education is going on. School curriculum is, as M. W. Apple(1993:222)puts it,“always part of a selective tradition, someone's selection, some group's vision of legitimate knowledge. It is produced out of the cultural, political and economic conflicts, tensions and compromises that organize and disorganize a people”. Educators situated in a certain cultural sphere are inevitably confronted with these issues of conflict and compromises in their endeavour to help students form their own identities. In an age of gradual collapse of old borders and zones of cultural differences, questions of culture increasingly become, as H. Giroux(1994:29)points out, interlaced with the issues of power, representation, and identity.“ Criticisms are often leveled against the alleged unproblematic and homogeneous cultural forms and practices. Traditions are no longer taken for granted. Rather they are thought to be historical and social constructs that are intermingled with the struggles of certain groups for the privilege and power. In a society with various competing cultural forms the issues of social solidarity and unique personal and cultural identity are at stake.
Other Identifiers: 7040BEC8-13F2-4AE6-B6D3-F7BDFBD4412C
Appears in Collections:教育研究所集刊

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