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Title: 清初河防政策與河工研究
Other Titles: A Research of River Engineering Plans and Hydraulic Engineers from the Ch'ing Dynasty: Focus of the Theories and Technology of Hydraulic Engineering of Chin-fu's (1633~1692)
Authors: 林天人 
Issue Date: Nov-2006
Publisher: 地理學系
Department of Geography, NTNU
Abstract: 「河患」困擾中國數千年。從治水的歷史發展看來,歷代對於水患雖未能完全根絕;但經過 歷代河工從錯誤中不斷的嘗試,已摸索出相當豐富的經驗。清代總結了歷史上治河的經驗,治河 的理論與技術較以往成熟許多;但限於許多客觀因素,清初河患的問題仍相當嚴重。這是本文探 討的重點之一。 另外,清初黃河為禍甚烈,朝野出現了許多不避艱難,以治理河務為念的河臣。勇於任事的 河工們在外櫛風沐雨、胼手胝足,但卻偶見朝中亦有因私利而處處掣肘的大臣,以致於河務幾度 廢弛;靳輔在治水生涯中,即多次面臨類似的例子。他在外面對水患的威脅,在朝因黨同伐異的 牽連,因此在政壇中載浮載沉,治水事業亦幾經波折。幸運的是,康熙能在朝臣間相互惡鬥之際, 仍能清醒地明辨其中是非;又康熙對於清代河政史是值得記上一筆的皇帝,他非常重視河患的問 題,親政後六次南至江淮地區,對於當時河務提出很多意見。「河工」不是尋常的工程,它不僅是 工程技術問題;同時包括許多的人事、經濟及政治等糾葛的問題。透過靳輔治水的過程,或許能 說明治河所面臨的複雜問題。 再者,河臣們退出河務的崗位後,紛紛將主持河政時的奏疏篇牘結集或著書,以提供後世治 河的經驗。其中靳輔與其賓客陳潢治水的理論與經驗結輯付梓,為當代亦為後世提供許多重要的 參考資料。
Floods have been the sorrow of China for thousands of years. The history of water control shows that although the Chinese have never been able to completely eliminate inundations, the incessant labor of hydraulic engineers through the ages has slowly provided a vast experience. The hydraulic engineers of the Ch‘ing dynasty summed up the experiences of those before them, and theory and technology made significant progress. During the reigns of Emperors K‘ang-hsi (1662-1722), Yung-cheng (1723-1735) and Ch‘ien-lung (1736-1795), the hydraulic engineers combined the construction of dykes with dredging of silt. The threat of inundation was thus reduced, and the epoch became one of the very few periods of water stabilization in Chinese history. The hydraulic engineering plans and related archival materials prove the high level of Ch‘ing water conservancy and the engineers’ proficiency in drawing maps and plans. The different kinds of utensils and documents related to water control, demonstrating the early Ch‘ing administration‘s diligence in addressing issues of water conservancy. Facing the threat of water catastrophes, emperors and officials cooperated in a self-effacing manner, and the emperors in particular were paying full attention to the theories and technology of the hydraulic engineers. This was a pivotal period when the question of inundation was temporarily resolved.
Other Identifiers: 05769885-5A80-EB0D-2721-CE0B8EC7BF2B
Appears in Collections:地理研究

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