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Title: 清代學政研究
Other Titles: The Study of the Provincial Director of Education in the Qing
Authors: 黃春木
Issue Date: Sep-2002
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 傳統中國於地方設置管理學務專官的制度,創始於宋代,歷經演變至今。清代學政為京外高官之一,掌一省學校、士習、文風之政令;直至清末推行新政,辦理新式學堂教育取代科舉,成為國家文教大政,學政制度終遭裁撤。學政制度之所以值得探究,主要原因有四:1.學政歸禮部節制,率皆進士出身,且由翰林官簡放者日多,此與宋代以來隸屬監察系統的定位不同。2.學政在省與督撫平行,地位尊崇,迥異於前代。3.學政職掌是以考覈生員,與維持其紳權為主。4.學政一任三年,必須通省巡歷,辨理歲科考,遴選優秀生員參加鄉試,或至國子監肄業。為了細膩地說明,本文以張之泂為例,更為具體地探究了學政的角色。由學政的任用資格、地位、職掌等,可以清楚地了解清代對於教育的重程度;同時,亦可由此沿革,探究傳統皇權體制理解和管理教育事務的原意與格局。
The institution, which assigned the special officer for managing local education and examination, dates from Sung Dynasty (960-1279) China. The officer always acted as administrator, educationalist, and controlling inspector. In Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the role of the director of education sent to the province by order of the emperor was similar, however, were But there was some difference as follows:1. Every director held the jinshi academic degree (進士)and most of themwere scholars with a high literary degree in the National Academy (翰林院) 2. The director was equal with the govrenor-general (總督)and governor (巡撫)within the province.3. His main tasks were to keep school discipline, to supervise the lower degree holders of gentry, especially the shengyuan status (生員), and to uphold the gentry's rights. 4. During the three-year tenure, he was instructed to make the circuit of the province twice in order to hold sueykao or kekao examinations (歲考、科考), and to select candidates to compete for the juren degree (舉人). For illustrating the director's role and task clearly, this article specially makes a case study of Change Chih-tung, the great statesman and educator.When the number of western schools increased and traditional examinations were cancelled, the director was replaced by commissioner of education during Late Qing's reform. In spite of this, it is meaningful to inquire the original intention and styles of the educational administration during Imperial China onthe study of the director of education.
Other Identifiers: D73AABC8-A83A-5F46-198C-C0F56EB2FA33
Appears in Collections:教育研究集刊

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