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Title: 落實教育品質和平等的績效責任制
Other Titles: Accountability for Quality and Equity: The Challenges and Responses of NCLB Act
Authors: 陳佩英
Peiying Chen
Chin-Ju Mao
Issue Date: Sep-2010
Publisher: 教育研究與評鑑中心
Center for Educational Research and Evaluation
Abstract: 美國的《把每個小孩帶上來》 (No Child Left Behind Act, NCLB) 之教育法,於2001 年12月經美國參眾議院審議通過,該法以實施「績效責任」來改進學生學習成果。績效表現的內容,包括:高中以下學生英、數兩科之測驗分數達到精熟度的比例、高中生畢業率,以及適任教師的比例為該法主要的評鑑項日。《NCLB法》設有獎懲機制,符合績效標準的學校可以持續獲得經費補助,連續兩年以上未能達到標準者,將被列入「亟需改善」之名單,學區和州政府得要求學校提改善計畫、協助學生轉學、提供補充教學、進行課程改革、替換部分或全數教職員、轉型為公立或私人經營的特許學校,甚至由學區或州政府接管學校。從該法的內容來看,美國政府是以教育平等(educational equity) 為名,動員全國力量,藉由提升教師素質和學校辦學之績效責任,達到縮小學習弱勢與一般學生之成就差距,進而提升美國未來人力之競爭力。為了達到成果門檻的平等,聯邦與地方政府有責任提供學區適足的經費與資源,使學校做到縮短學生的表現差距;並以經費的分配與改善機制和績效責任連結,規忠績效連續兩年未達標準的學校即被取消經費補助。然而多年來,各學區和州之教育主管、教育學者、教師、家長與民間團體對此法案都表示疑慮,有些學區和州政府甚至對聯邦政府提出訴訟、抵制《NCLB法》制責任之要求,甚至聯合起來要求修法。《NCLB法》企圖透過績效責任落實教育品質提升和教育平等,是否可行?該法的落實所引發的主要爭議和矛盾有哪些?本文檢視《NCLB法》之相關文獻,以該法為例,探討藉由績效責任以提升教育品質,同時落實教育平等之可行性和實施所面臨的挑戰與目前修法的方向。
The goals of NCLB (No Child Left Behind) are to improve the performance of American schools by mandating the standards of accountability for states, school districts and schools, as well as empowering parents by choosing better schools for their children to attend. NCLB Act required all American schools to meet AYP targets for proficiency, participation, and other academic indicators. Schools that do not meet AYP targets for two consecutive years or more are identified as “in need of improvement" and must be subject to a series of sanctions. The sanctions contain that failing schools provide all students the option to transfer to highly performing schools, offer supplemental educational services, take corrective action, restructure school organization, or are taken over by school districts or states, for which the sanctions stiffen each subsequent year. The Bush's administration imposed the NCLB accountability systems on all schools and requested them to achieve provision of 100 percent of highly ualifies teachers by 2006 and close the achievement gap between the advantaged and the disadvantaged groups of students by 2014. Despite the widespread support for NCLB's goals, the growing state and local dissent and law suites against NCLB began to emerge as the public witnessed the law's negative effects on teaching and learning. In order to understand the controversies made by NCLB's interventions, this article looks for implications ofthe NCLB Act on educational reform in the U.S. Firstly, the paper overviews the initiating and implementing process of NCLB Act. Then the paper discusses key mechanisms and the major disputes resulted from the NCLB's accountability systems. Third, the paper interprets the constraint and possibility of the NCLB Act that has an attempt to integrate equity with accountability for educational policy and practice. And last, by introducing the Obama administration's proposal of revision of NCLB Act, the paper concludes that the current accounta
Other Identifiers: 3C0CEB6B-9279-3AF7-42E8-DC6C47CD3EBF
Appears in Collections:當代教育研究

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