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Explore the correlations of the dietary patterns and body circumferences for the adult males and females in Taiwan
body circumference measurements
24-hour dietary recall
food frequency questionnaire
本研究受試者共有145名 (男性71名；女性74名)，以問卷蒐集基本資料與體圍資訊，並利用24小時飲食回憶法 (24-hour dietary recall, 24HDR) 以及本研究室自行研發以食材為主飲食頻率問卷 (food and ingredients-based food frequency questionnaire, FIFFQ) 蒐集飲食資料，之後運用獨立樣本T檢定 (Independent-Sample t test) 與皮爾森積差相關分析 (Pearson Correlation) 分別進行性別間飲食差異性分析與體圍及飲食型態相關性分析。
研究結果指出FIFFQ相較於24HDR並不適合用來作為定量研究的資料蒐集工具，因此本研究皆以24HDR之結果作進一步探討。本研究發現受試者在24HDR三大營養素的百分比為碳水化合物 (男性：49.3%；女性：48.6%)、蛋白質 (男性：15.6%；女性：15.7%) 與脂質 (男性：35.1%；女性：35.7%)。而每公斤體重之受試者攝取熱量平均為32.5 kcal/kg (男性：32.2 kcal/kg；女性：32.8 kcal/kg)、碳水化合物為4.0 g/kg (男性：4.0 g/kg；女性：4.0 g/kg)、蛋白質為1.2 g/kg (男性：1.2 g/kg；女性：1.3 g/kg) 以及脂質1.3 g/kg (男性：1.3 g/kg；女性：1.3 g/kg)。除此之外，24HDR之各食物類別，男性攝取量在全榖雜糧類、豆魚蛋肉類與肉類及其製品顯著大於女性攝取量 (p< 0.05)。
綜合以上結果，推論臺灣成年男性體圍中臂圍 (r = 0.308, p = 0.009,平均為30.2 cm)、腰圍 (r = 0.260, p = 0.029, 平均為88.4 cm) 以及小腿圍 (r = 0.309, p = 0.009, 平均為37.4 cm) 可能與蛋白質每日攝取量 (平均為86.64 g/day) 呈正相關；而臺灣成年女性中臂圍平均值為27.3 cm，可能與膳食纖維 (r = -0.277, p = 0.017, 平均為14.23 g/day) 以及葉酸 (r = -0.314, p = 0.007, 平均為304.04 g/day) 每日攝取量呈負相關。除此之外，藉由飲食挑選原則之結果，得知受試者挑選原則前三名為「習慣」、「便利性」以及「營養均衡」，藉此認為不單要加強國人對於營養知識的教育，也要針對支持性環境做加強，如同前述，飲食型態可能受食物可獲性、社經地位、喜好程度與個人習慣等因素所影響。|
In recent years, many studies have been examed and discussed the issues related to anthropometric measurements; however, we do not have sufficient data from local studies. This study developed the methods to collect data for the circumferences and evaluated the dietary patterns by gender. Dietary patterns are changeable and influenced by multiple factors including the food availability, socioeconomic status, personal preferences and habits. At present, the local research lacks the relevant dietary pattern information, such as the proper dietary assessment methods, food selection factors, meal distributions, and nutrient density issues. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to collect the related information and analyze the correlations between the body circumferences and the dietary patterns by different genders in Taiwan. There were total 145 subjects in this study (71 males; 74 females). Basic information and body circumference data were collected by questionnaires and the individual dietary information was collected by the 24-hour dietary recalls and the food and ingredients-based food frequency questionnaire (FIFFQ). We used the Independent-Sample t test, and the Pearson Correlation and analyzed the correlations between body circumferences and dietary patterns in male and female participants. The results showed the FIFFQ is not suitable as the dietary assessment method for quantitative research, and the study suggests to use 24HDR method to examine the relationships between diet and anthroprometry. The study indicates the percentages of energy from the three major nutrients were carbohydrate (male: 49.32%; female: 48.58%), protein (male: 15.59%; female: 15.75%) and fat (male: 35.09%; female: 35.67%). The average calorie intake per kilogram body weight of the subjects was 32.5 kcal/kg (male: 32.2 kcal/kg; female: 32.8 kcal/kg), and the carbohydrate was 4.0 g/kg (male: 4.0 g/kg; female: 4.0 g/kg), and the protein was 1.2 g/kg (male: 1.2 g/kg; female: 1.3 g/kg), and the fat was 1.3 g/kg (male: 1.3 g/kg; female: 1.3 g/kg). Furthermore, the results from the food categories have showed that the consumptions of the whole grains, beans, fish, eggs, meat, meat and their products in the male population were significantly higher than in the females (p< 0.05). In addition, the male upper-mid-arm circumference (r = 0.308, p = 0.009, mean = 30.2 cm), waist circumference (r = 0.260, p = 0.029, mean = 88.4 cm), and calf circumference (r = 0.309, p = 0.009, mean = 37.4 cm) were all positively correlated with the daily protein intake (mean = 86.64 g/day). In addition, the female upper- mid-arm circumference (mean= 27.3 cm) was negatively correlated with the dietary fiber (r = -0.277, p = 0.017, mean = 14.23 g/day) and the folic acid (r = -0.314, p= 0.007, mean = 304.04 g/day). Although the daily nutrient intakes were not reach the DRIs for some micronutrients in this study population, the results of the dietary selection factors showed that the "habit", "convenience" and "balanced nutrition" were the top three selection principles. This study suggests it is not only to enhance the education of nutrition knowledge, but also to improve the supportive environment. The dietary patterns are influenced by the factors such as food availability, socioeconomic status, personal preference levels and food habits.
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