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Title: 以交尾器抱器幾何形態、幼生期戴爾法則與分子證據探討小眉眼蝶族群間之分化
Using Geometric Morphometry in Gentalia, Dyar’s rule in Larvae, and molecular evidence Investigate the Diversity of Mycalesis mineus among populations
Authors: 徐堉峰
Hsu Yu-Feng
Huang, Li
Keywords: 幾何形態學
Geometric morphometry
Dyar’s rule
Mycalesis mineus
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: 眉眼蝶亞族(Subtribe Mycalesina)為鱗翅目(Lepidoptera)蛺蝶科(Nymphalidae)眼蝶亞科(Satyrinae)下被認為是蝴蝶中適應輻射最可觀的一群,也是舊熱帶區分布最廣最多樣的一群蝴蝶。其中眉眼蝶屬(Mycalesis)共90種,主要分布於東洋區與澳洲區,少部分物種分布至古北區,是該亞族的大屬,其中小眉眼蝶(Mycalesis mineus (Linnaeus, 1758))所屬的小眉眼蝶種群(mineus-group)就佔了19種。除了曲斑眉眼蝶(Mycalesis perseus (Fabricius, 1775))與小眉眼蝶外,都是分布相對侷限的的種類。本種群中許多種的分布重疊且外觀相似,加上其成蟲多樣的季節型翅紋變化,導致難以正確辨識,其幼生期形態則在終齡以前不易分辨。此外,雄蝶的交尾器抱器形態也多變異,同種的雄蟲的抱器形狀在個體間常有出入。在觀察研究室累積多年的樣本後,發現臺灣本島產與金門島上產的小眉眼蝶(相當於臺灣島與大陸地區的族群)在交尾器抱器形態上有可見的差異。本研究將以小眉眼蝶為主要研究對象,收集幼生期基本數據以及計算其戴爾常數、測量臺灣本島、大陸地區以及其他亞洲國家產的小眉眼蝶雄蟲交尾器抱器的幾何形態,並進行分析,再輔以粒線體DNA的cox1基因序列的遺傳差異檢測並建立親緣關係樹,以探討小眉眼蝶臺灣本島族群跟大陸地區與其他東洋區國家的族群間是否在這些方面出現顯著差異,並探討小眉眼蝶各地族群交尾器抱器形態的分化。結果顯示,幼生期基本資料中的卵徑、以及使用頭殼寬計算出的戴爾常數在不同大地點間有顯著差異,而交尾器抱器幾何形態則沒有出現明顯分群。在cox1基因遺傳變異度分析部分,發現泰國產的樣本分別與與臺灣跟金門的樣本都有4%的差距,臺灣與金門的個樣本之間的變異度則只有0~1%的差距,最大或然法(ML)建立的親緣關係樹也支持這一結果。因此臺灣跟金門的小眉眼蝶族群仍視為同物種,而泰國產的族群建議在未來進一步研究後,將其視為異於小眉眼蝶的物種,並提升至種級階層。
Subtribe Mycalesina in Nyphalidae, Lepidoptera is considered to be one of the most spectacular evolutionary radiations of butterflies in the world. And arguably the most cosmopolitan and abundant group of butterflies restricted to the old world tropics. There are 90 Mycalesis species are distributed in the Oriental, Australian, and part of the Palearctic, and 19 of 90 species are belong to mineus species group. Most of them are comparatively endemism, only perseus and mineus distributed wide. Most of the species in this species group are overlapping distribution and their adults looks very similar, the seasonal change of eyespot pattern let the species identification more difficult. The appearance larva also difficult to identify until final-stage. Furthermore, the male adult’s gentalia’s valva’s shape are vary even between same species’ males. After observed the specimens accumulated for many years in lab, had found visible difference between Taiwan’s and Kinmen’s mineus specimens in gentalia’s valva. This research will collect and use egg and larva stage data and use Dyar’s rule and calculate larva’s Dyar’s constant, geometric morphometry methods to measure and analysis the mineus from different place male gentalia’s valva’s value of geometric morphometry, calculate the p-distance between mitochondria DNA sequence’s data (cox1) from different place and construct phylogenetic tree, establish the preliminary study on whether or not there is a significant difference in these aspects between different mineus-group in Taiwan and those in the mainland of China and other Oriental countries. The results showed that the egg diameter in the basic data of the young period and the Dyar constant calculated using the width of the head shell were significantly different between different large locations, while the geometric pattern of the mating fixture did not show obvious clustering. In the analysis of the genetic variability of the cox1 gene, it was found that the samples produced in Thailand were 4% different from the samples from Taiwan and Kinmen, and the variation between Taiwan and Kinmen was only 0 to 1%. The kinship tree established by the Maximum Likehood (ML) also supports this result. Therefore, Taiwan's and Kinmen’s Mycalesis mineus population is still regarded as the same species, while the population in Thailand suggest that after further research in the future, they will be regarded as species different from the eyebrows and raised to the species level.
Other Identifiers: G060343017S
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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