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Title: 上古漢語副詞「乃」的來源與功能研究
A Study of the Origin and Functions of Adverb "Nai" in Ancient Chinese
Authors: 郭維茹
Hung, Ni-Duan
time adverbs
consecutive adverbs
judge adverbs
limit adverbs
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: 本文以副詞「乃」為研究對象,以探討副詞「乃」的來源與功能為研究主題,旨在爬梳語料文獻,以探求「乃」的發展脈絡,並就各功能的來源與使用進行討論。 本文第二章嘗試考察副詞「乃」的來源。我們在參看前人研究,以及爬梳甲骨文語料的過程中,發現「乃」與「迺」關係密切。我們認為應是動詞「迺」藉由隱喻機制虛化為副詞,由原本表空間域的遠離,轉為表時間域的遠離,即「未來、後時」的時間概念,並根據主觀化與否,可分別作表順序與表後時兩類功能。隨後書寫者為求便利,遂以同音的「乃」通假為「迺」使用。 本文第三、四章意在探討「乃」的功能來源與用法。由於語源不同,因此我們將把「乃」的副詞功能分為兩章探討:在第三章以時間副詞和承接副詞功能的討論為主,第四章則探討判斷副詞與限定副詞。在時間副詞方面,「乃」自商代始承繼「迺」的時間副詞功能,至周代以降,便全然取代「迺」在文獻中的使用。在承接副詞方面,當「乃」所承接的前後事件含有事理關係時,此時「乃」便經由語境吸收,發展為承接副詞;而其承接副詞功能可分為順承和逆承,表順承的「乃」可承接因果和條件關係的文句;表逆承的「乃」則表示與上句文意相悖的結果。在判斷副詞方面,其功能以表示對主語的特質、範圍、數量等進行解釋辨別;而判斷副詞「乃」的來源,我們認為可能是由指示代詞「乃」發展而來。在限定副詞方面,當「乃」處於對比語境時,便可表示對該謂語的限定,其限定功能可能來自「乃」的判斷功能,或者表順序、邏輯關係的功能。 本文第五章主要討論「乃」自中古以降的發展,經爬梳語料發現:「乃」的使用數量與主要功能自元代開始發生變化。經考察語料,我們認為是同功能的「便」、「就」、「才」興盛,以致「乃」呈現衰落之象;至於限定功能則因受限於語境,且在中古時期有其他專職限定副詞的盛行,因此「乃」的限定功能就此衰落。 此外,我們經考察發現:有些「乃」類雙音詞是「副詞 + 副詞」的組成,如「乃遂」;有些則是經由語用推理機制而來,如「無乃」、「毋乃」;有些則是偶然結合的詞組,如「而乃」、「非乃」。
In this article, the main purpose is to make the adverb “Nai”(乃) as the subject for the research. The aim of this article is to explore the origin and function of the adverb. With the support of the reference from previous works, we would like to look deep into the development of the adverb and do further discussion for each function on its origin and usage. The second chapter of this article would be focuson tracing the origin of the adverb “Nai”(乃). In the process of referring to previous studies and the sourcing from oracle bone script, the word Nai(乃) is closely associated with the word “Nai”(迺). We consider the verb of“Nai (迺)”was being functional deprived and turned into a adverb due to metaphorical mechanism. And thus, the meaning conversed from the performance of space into the concept of time to show the idea of future tense in Chinese. The usage of the word had transferred along the subjective judgement of the user to illustrate the two functions: representing the meaning of “order” and “afterwards”. Subsequently, the writer adopted the homonymous “Nai(乃)” as the word “Nai”(迺). As for the third and fourth chapters of this article are intended to explore the functional origin and the usage of "Nai"(乃). Due to the differences of source, we separate the discussion into two chapters. For chapter three, the discussion would be focusing on the function for time adverbs and the of consecutive adverbs. In chapter four, the discussion would be targeting on the function for judgement adverbs and the limit adverbs. On the aspect discussing the function of adverbs of time, the word Nai(乃) succeeded to the function of time adverb since the Shang Dynasty and fully took over it and adopted it in the literature during Zhou Dynasty . As for the searching of adverb of consecutive connections, the word“Nai”(乃) could be absorbed by the context and developed into consecutive connection adverb when Nai is connecting two events with affairs. The function of the adverb could be categorized as two directions, including the successive and adversative directions. When the Nai is showing the successive function, which means the sentence is in the relation of causation and condition. On contrary, when the Nai is representing the adversative function which means the sentence would show contrary result against the former sentence. In terms of judge adverbs, its function is to explain and distinguish the characteristics, including the scope, quantity, etc. of the subject while judging the origin of the adverb "Nai"(乃), we consider it may developed from the demonstrative pronoun "Nai"(乃). In terms of limit adverbs, when "Nai" is being put in a contrasting context, it can indicate the limitation of the predicate. The limiting function may come from the judg function of "Nai"(乃), or the function of order or logical relationship. The fifth chapter would mainly discuss the development of Nai(乃) since the middle ages. Through identification from previous literature, it is found that the number and main function of "Nai" have changed since the Yuan Dynasty. After examining the literature, we believe that the words with same functions like "Bian", "Ji" and "Cai" (便、即、才) prospered, and led to the decline of Nai(乃). As for the limited function of Nai was limited by the literature context during the Middle Ages when qualified adverbs were prevalent, and thus the limited function of Nai(乃) had declined. As for the part of disyllabic words, we found that some disyllabic words are in the composition of "adverb + adverb", such as "NaiSui"(乃遂); while some are obtained through pragmatic inference mechanism, such as "WuNai”(無乃) and "WuNai"(毋乃). And others were accidentally combined phrases, such as "ErNai”(而乃) and "FeiNai”(非乃).
Other Identifiers: G060520040L
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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