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Title: 先秦儒家「義命觀」與佛教「業果觀」之比較――以《孟子》與《菩提道次第廣論》為核心
A Comparison between the views of Yi-Ming of Confucianists in pre-Qin Days and Karma of Buddhism:Focus on Mencius and The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment
Authors: 張崑將
Chang, Kun-Chiang
Kuo, Pin-Yu
Keywords: 儒佛會通
Confucianism and Buddhism
the distinction between rightness and profit
Justice and Fate
Mandate of Heaven
the mind of shame
Infinitee Life
The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment
moral feeling
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: 儒家義利之辨是為人行事之準則,佛教亦透過業果法則指導人如何判斷善惡,二者皆涉及內心自覺思擇的工夫論、動機―行為―生命相互影響之因素,與最後得利感果之外顯結果。因此筆者認為儒家「義命觀」與佛教「業果親」實具多組可對舉比較之重要概念,如:「仁義內在之性善―菩提自性」、「集義養氣―正知正念」、「逆覺體證―隨轉修心」、「行義得利―感善惡果」、「天命―業果法則」、「命限與德福一致―業力」、「無限心―無限生命」、「理義悅心―善法欲」等義理比較。筆者也觀察到「道德情感」具有推動上述與「義」相關之道德實踐的作用,因此也探討「羞惡之心―懺悔」、「苦其心志―苦功德」與「動心忍性―忍辱波羅蜜」之異同。本文以最先提出義利之辨、對義命觀論述豐富的《孟子》,與堪稱佛教論著集大成、對業果觀修行次第整理最具系統之《菩提道次第廣論》,作為比較的核心文本,論證儒家「義命觀」與佛教「業果觀」,在「內在動機」、「中間影響」與「外在成果」乃具有異中有同之共通性,故可作為儒佛工夫修養論之銜接會通處。
In Confucianists, the distinction between rightness and profit is the life guidelines. Buddhism also teaches people how to judge good and evil behaviors through the law of Karma. Both of them are the theory of self-cultivation, which involves the interaction between self-awareness, motivation, behavior, fate, and results. Therefore, the author believes that many important concepts between the views of Justice and Fate of Confucianists and Karma of Buddhism can be compared, such as Goodness of Human Nature compared to Buddha-Nature, Judge to Righteousness and Mindfulness, Enlightenment by Reversed Awareness to Change one's mind, Profit to Result, Mandate of Heaven to Karma, Destiny limitation and the consistency of morality and happiness to Karma Influence, Infinite heart to Infinitee Life, and the Good wish. On the other hand, the author discovers that moral feelings like the mind of shame, repentance, hardships, suffering and endurance affect the promotion of moral practice. Since Mencius is the first to propose a distinction between righteousness and benefit with a bunch of discussions on the concept of Justice and Fate, and The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment is the most comprehensive collection of Buddhist treatises and the most systematic review of karma and practice, this purpose of this study is to compare the two schools of the theories to demonstrate the commonality of self-cultivation compared with the views of Justice and Fate of Confucianists and Karma of Buddhism. We hope that the discussions and comparisons can be applied as a linkage for Confucianists and Buddhism in the theory of self-cultivation.
Other Identifiers: G060583002I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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