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Title: 美領前期菲律賓華商活動的歷史地理(1900-1930年代)—以砂糖貿易與木材業為例
Other Titles: Historical Geography of Chinese Businessmen in thePhilippines: Sugar and Lumber Merchants duringthe Early Years of American Colonial Rule
Authors: 葉爾建
Yeh, Er-jian
Issue Date: Jun-2020
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 菲律賓華人來自福建和廣東,分別自十六世紀和十九世紀中開始,或操舟從事跨海貿易,或插足蔗糖貿易。本文利用1900-1930 年代的殖民材料和報章雜誌,探究美領前期當地華商活動的歷史發展和地理變化。分析菲律賓和中國閩粵地區交通連結的變化、移民人口移動方向的轉化,以及移民聚落的建立等議題。本文不欲鉅細靡遺地討論菲律賓華人的所有經濟活動變遷,而是企圖探究進入美國統治後,既有產業和新興事業的轉變。首先,美國在1930 年代中葉以後對外地砂糖輸入的限制,造成華人砂糖貿易商難以進入美國市場,僅能固守中國和日本的砂糖市場。其次,受惠於美領政廳所創造的經營環境,華人將觸角伸展至木材產業,並有更多華人移居至盛產林木的地區。最後,本文發現在美國和菲律賓經濟聯繫深化的背景下,華商的活動深受中國沿岸港口的易達性、港灣的工事啟動、限制小型船隻從事外貿,以及關閉南方部分港口等各項措施的影響。華人的經濟活動或受社會、經濟變化的影響, 或與資源分布高度相關, 而呈現獨特的區域分布特性。由於大多從事進出口貿易和米穀、布疋、雜貨等日用品販售的經濟活動,華人居住地域多集中在菲島外貿港口所在的大「埠」或鄰近小「社」。大埠在經濟圈內構成較高等級的節點,連結國際航線;小社則為等級較低的節點或聚落,必須依附於大埠的經濟活動。若干大埠吸納周圍數個小社構成的集合體,既構成了經濟圈,也成為菲律賓華人社群活動的生活圈。
In the sixteenth century, Chinese immigrants from Fujian provincebegan settling in the Philippines; in the nineteenth century, a further waveof Chinese immigrants, this time from Guangdong province, started arrivingthere. Thus, when the American colonial administration of the Philippinescommenced in 1898, Chinese immigrants had been operating in the islandsfor more than three hundred years. By looking at a variety of sources—colonial government publications as well as Chinese archives, journals, andnewspapers—this article explores the changes that American colonial rulebrought to Chinese merchants in the Philippines.An examination of the materials shows that the Fujianese remained thelargest group of ethnic Chinese merchants, even as the number of Cantonesemerchants was growing steadily. Most Chinese immigrants lived in towns(埠 pu) and villages (社 she) not far from open ports, because Chinesepeople were usually involved in maritime trade and the inland marketing ofrice, clothes and groceries. In the mid-1930s, after the U.S. placedrestrictions on the import of sugar, Chinese sugar merchants could only selltheir product to other east Asia destinations such as Japan and China.Another change wrought by American colonial rule was the creation of anew breed of businessmen: lumber merchants, who came into existence bytaking advantage of preferential American policies. This article alsosuggests that in the context of strengthening American-Filipino economic relations, the activities of Chinese businessmen were influenced by accessto Chinese coastal regions, harbor improvements, restrictions on vesselswith low tonnage and the closing of small southern ports.
Other Identifiers: 73613597-AC6D-D7E1-99F1-86B3659F107F
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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