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Title: Small Wars與臺灣北部漢人武裝抗日運動
Other Titles: Small Wars of the Ruling Government of Taiwan against the Anti-Japanese Forces of the Northern Formosan Chinese, 1895-1902
Authors: 近藤正己
Masami Kondo
Issue Date: Dec-2019
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學台灣史研究所
Graduate Institute of Taiwan History
Abstract: 殖民地統治是立足於軍事力,是依靠武力成立的。臺灣總督府到底是如何以軍事力征服臺灣,臺灣人又是如何抵抗這外來統治,是本文所要追求的課題。1840年代在非洲北部阿爾及利亞,法軍Thomas-Robert Bugeaud確立了稱為殖民地方式的Small Wars戰鬥方法。近衛師團、臺灣守備混成旅團等也以「討伐」之名,欲藉此Small Wars來殲滅殖民地的武裝抗日勢力。但在雲林事件發生後,這種作為戰術的Small Wars在當時帝國主義的國際監視下受到制約,無法再毫無顧忌的使用。且因日本殖民地軍隊的性格與英法不同,加上臺灣的戰鬥地域是山岳區,有兵站線(補給線)及風土病等的問題,Small Wars的戰術無法順利發揮機能,因而對「討伐」作了戰術與目標上的調整。本文以臺灣北部為例,漢人武裝抗日勢力在避開正面對抗Small Wars戰術的攻擊下,仍不屈地持續蜂起,但因被驅趕至內山、北山,失去地域社會的支援後呈現孤立化狀態。本文在探討以上諸問題後,思追究臺灣總督府與武裝抗日勢力雙方均在僵持不下的困窘局勢中,如何開始摸索對話。其中強勢的武裝抗日集團在透過「歸順」名義的交涉儀式後,轉化為地域開發業者、開發工及農民等地域經濟運作的一員,終而化為殖民地的開發經濟能量之一。
Colonial rule is based on military power and is established by force. This article focuses on how the Government-General of Taiwan conquered Taiwan by military power, and how the Taiwanese resisted this foreign rule. In Algeria in the 1840s, Thomas-Robert Bugeaud of the French Army established the colonial "Small Wars" military tactic. The Japanese Imperial Guard and the Taiwan Garrison Combined Brigade, in the name of subjugation, also desired to use the Small Wars tactic to destroy the armed anti-Japanese forces of the colony. However, after the Yunlin Incident, use of the Small Wars tactic was restricted due to the international scrutiny of imperialism at the time, and could no longer be used unscrupulously. Due to the differing character of the Japanese colonial army and those of Britain and France, as well as the mountainous terrain of Taiwan, there were problems with military logistics and endemic disease. Thus the Small Wars tactic did not function smoothly, and tactics and goals were adjusted to achieve subjugation. This article takes the northern part of Taiwan as an example. While avoiding confronting the Small Wars tactic directly, the Han Chinese armed anti-Japanese forces continued unyieldingly to resist, however were driven to the inner mountains and the northern mountains where they lost their support from the local society and became increasingly isolated. After discussing the above issues, this article investigates how the Government-General of Taiwan and the anti-Japanese forces, finding themselves in an embarrassing stalemate, started exploring dialogue. After nominally surrendering, some of these powerful anti-Japanese groups were then transformed into members of the regional economic operation, such as regional developers, workers, and farmers, and eventually became one of the driving economic forces for the development of the colony.
Other Identifiers: F540308B-5E91-63E5-1F68-BB072769C155
Appears in Collections:師大台灣史學報

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