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|Title:||狩獵與危害防治對臺灣野豬(Sus scrofa taivanus)族群影響之探討|
Impact of hunting and crop damage prevention on Formosan wild boar (Sus scrofa taivanus) population
Formosan wild boar
Sus scrofa taivanus
crop damage prevention
|Abstract:||野生動物保育法自從在1989年公告實施後，近年來許多研究已顯示多數保育類野生動物種數量因此穩定增加中，但中大型哺乳動物中唯一未列名於保育類野生動物名錄中的臺灣野豬(Sus scrofa taivanus)，卻不明原因明顯減少。由於野豬是廣受歡迎的山產，牠獨特的拱地行為也會破壞農作物，是否因此使得其與人之間的衝突性高於其他物種，而增加了獵捕壓力、導致族群下降，值得深入探討。而野豬一向是台灣山林很重要的自然資源，為能永續利用，了解其族群現況、探討族群減少的原因是否與未受法規保護，以及與人之衝突(包括危害作物及遭受過度獵捕)嚴重有關，乃十分重要。
本研究主要包括四大章節，首先藉由過去相關文獻之結果整理出野豬特有的生物特性如何影響人類對其捕殺的動機，也由1993~2007年間相關野生動物調查文獻之次級資料整理與獵人訪問資料，比較野豬與其他大型保育類物種--台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)、臺灣山羌(Muntiacus reevesi micrurus)、臺灣長鬃山羊(Naemorhedus swinhoei) 與臺灣水鹿(Capricirnis crispus swinhoei))之相對數量，來了解其近年來之族群動態。文獻整理結果，野豬容易受人獵捕的特質可能因其與家豬同種，肉質同受人類青睞，加上其以特有鼻骨掘土之拱地行為與喜歡在平坦農地活動之特性，容易引發與人之衝突。在族群動態方面，比較兩類資料分析結果，皆顯示野豬與水鹿數量同屬其中最低等級，顯著低於保育類物種山羌、獼猴與長鬃山羊，確實值得注意。
Recently many studies had indicated that many protected wildlife species have been increasing steadily since the legistation of the “Wildlife Conservation Law” in 1989. With exception, abundance of Formosan wild boar (Sus scrofa taivanus), the only non-protected large mammal in Taiwan, has been decreasing for unknown reason. Whether the nature as popular game sold at store or as a nauseating pest for cropland was responsible for its heavy hunting pressure and population status or not, it has never been known. For this reason, this study investigated the population trend, hunting and crop damage pattern of the species and examined the relationship between theses factors. This should be beneficial to the sustainable management of this special, valuable creature. This study contains four main parts. First, by reviewing previous, related works, I tried to find out the motivation of hunting wild boar as related to its natural habitat. I collected information about the relative abundance of wild boar along with other four large mammals, Formosan macaque (Macaca cyclopis), Formosan muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi micrurus), and Formosan serow (Naemorhedus swinhoei), and Formosa sambar (Capricirnis crispus swinhoei), from the papers published during 1993-2007, to compare their population trend for the past two decades. Results showed that the boar was heavily hunted for its meat as domestic pig and for its ability in seriously ruining massive crop product by rooting. Based on reviewed data, it was indicated that sambar and wild boar were ranked in lower abundance than the remaining three animals in recent years. Second, from August 2003 to October 2006, deep-interview and helf-opened questionnaire interview, ntural observation were conducted at Huelien, Nantou, Taitong, Kaoshiung, and Pingtung Counties, where the number of wild boar was largely reduced. A snow-balling sampling and stratified sampling were applied to document the pattern of crop damage and boar-hunting by local hunters and farmers. Most hunters aged between 36 and 55, and 23 % of them hunted boar exclusively. They set leg-hold traps and snares in mountain of 600-1600 m in elevation. Younger hunters preferred to hunt with musket. Among those raided crop plants like corn, sweet potato, and taro, only was corn was major crop for some areas. However, crop damage problem may become milder as a consequence of boar’s decreased number for the past decade. But interviewed farmers favored lethal control, with dog-chasing being claimed most effective, even though the farmers suffered with minor crop damage. Analysis of stomach content and dropping showed slim chance for boars to forage both at forest and farmland on Meishan of Kaoshiung County. To further analyze factors influencing the reason why boars were hunted, another deep-interview and participant observation were conducted at Meishan village to determine the differences in capture rate, species hunted and location among hunting methods such as leg-hold sanre trap and traditional musket. It was found that wild boar and muntjac were captured in greater amount than other species. Overall, a greater number of wild boars were captured by musket. And because muntjac outnumbered wild boar by transectline sampling, it is suggested that wild boar was selectively hunted. Law enforcement on protected animals apparently did not help in preserving wild boar in areas such as national forest and park where hunting is restricted. For the past decade, market price of large mammal bushmeat increased for the boar exclusively. This coincides with itspreference by hunter in my data. Undoubtedly this species still plays a crucial role on the modern living of indigenous people nowadays.
|Appears in Collections:||學位論文|
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