Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/102339
Title: 圖像對話:莫里斯‧德尼的《向塞尚致敬》
A Fellowship of Pictorial Dialogue: Maurice Denis' Hommage à Cézanne
Authors: 諾斯邦
Valentin Nussbaum
林雅雯
Ya-Wen Lin
Keywords: 莫理斯.德尼
《向塞尚致敬》
群像畫
致敬畫
塞尚
那比派
魯東
圖像對話
調和
Maurice Denis
Hommage à Cézanne
group portrait
homage painting
Paul Cézanne
Nabis
Odilon Redon
pictorial dialogue
reconciliation
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: 本論文主要探討法國十九世紀末那比派(Les Nabis)畫家莫里斯‧德尼(Maurice Denis) 於1900年所繪製的一幅群像畫《向塞尚致敬》(Hommage à Cézanne)。 德尼在此幅作品中,描繪了一群那比派青年藝術聚集在畫商沃拉(Ambroise Vollard) 的畫廊內,圍繞在塞尚的靜物畫旁。德尼在這幅群像畫中,不僅描繪了自己與一群那比派藝術家,同時也描繪了畫商沃拉、評論家梅勒西歐(André Mellerio)、象徵主義畫家魯東(Odilon Redon)與自己的妻子瑪莎(Maurice Marthe)在內共十位對象。 關於此作品的討論,目前研究一般認為此張群像畫為提升十九世紀末後印象派藝術家塞尚名聲的主要證據。 近年來研究則傾向於將此幅作品作為德尼本人的藝術轉向或是政治上的表態。 目前學界並沒有學者針對此張作品專書討論, 大部分關於此幅作品的討論多為研究那比派的專書所零星提及。 然而,文獻中亦指出, 德尼在構想此幅群像畫之前,並沒有提及塞尚,而是將魯東作為那比派藝術家的圍繞的對象;更甚者,德尼同時也將此作品連結十六世紀西班牙藝術家葛雷科 (El Greco)的作品《歐貴茲伯爵的葬禮》(The Burial of the Count of Orgaz)。由於德尼的原始構想與結果相差甚遠,與宗教繪畫的連結更是顯示出其特定而不甚明確的傾向,因此本論文極力欲釐清造成德尼改變初衷的原因、以及其對於何以將此作品與宗教連結的態度。同時,塞尚的靜物畫《高腳盤、玻璃與蘋果》(Compotier, verre et pommes)作為德尼此幅作品的主要焦點,不僅取代了群像畫中將被致敬者的肖像作為致意的傳統,同時無疑地也扮演了重要的角色,因此本論文亦著重於探討塞尚靜物畫對於德尼本人的意義與重要性。 本論文分為三章。第一章首先探討法國十九世紀群像畫的傳統與發展。此部分希望藉由比較藝術家群像畫的傳統與類型,指出德尼《向塞尚致敬》在構圖與形式上所採取的不同策略,討論此幅作品的獨特性與創新概念。第二章則討論塞尚靜物畫對於德尼的意義,並以塞尚的靜物畫作為一種特殊指涉性的符號角度,揭櫫其如何扮演了德尼與他的同儕們在圖像對話(pictorial dialogue)上的媒介。身為那比派藝術家的精神導師,高更(Paul Gauguin)的肖像畫作品《瑪利亞.黛西昂在塞尚的靜物畫前》(Maria Derrien à la nature morte de Cézanne)為將塞尚的靜物畫挪用至個人作品中的首例,其後那比派理論家塞呂西葉(Paul Sérusier)與塞尚追隨者貝納(Émile Bernard)也同樣地利用了塞尚的《高腳盤、玻璃與蘋果》作為各自的呼應與對比。本章藉由研究此一現象,探討圖像作為一種對話方式,如何應用在那比派的藝術理念表達之上,尤其如何影響了德尼對於選擇塞尚的靜物畫作為代表向塞尚本人的致敬。第三章則探討在德尼作品中出現的十位對象的連結關係,包括德尼的妻子瑪莎(Maurice Marthe)、那比派藝術家們、畫商沃拉、評論家梅勒西歐(André Mellerio)、與象徵主義畫家魯東(Odilon Redon)。藉由探討他們之間在藝術上彼此緊密而相連的關係,本章意在剖析德尼在選擇上所流露出的個人的態度與藝術傾向(包括德尼如何結合天主教的概念),同時也分析德尼從對魯東致敬而轉向對塞尚致敬的深層原因,並藉由此探討德尼在藝術表現上的連貫性。 透過對此張作品在題材上、內容上、與特定對象的描繪與分析,本論文的研究顯示,德尼的《向塞尚致敬》不僅僅只是對塞尚致敬,同時也表達了對魯東致敬的意涵;德尼也藉由塞尚的靜物畫《高腳盤、玻璃與蘋果》企圖達到與那比派的同儕們進行關係聯結與圖像對話的方式;同時德尼更具體而微地將他與他的同儕們表現在一個特定而小眾的團體之中,藉以緬懷那比派、並宣示其個人在藝術主張上的轉向與發展(從前衛到追求以文藝復興為藍本的古典樣式)。正是由於這些多重涵意的宣示,德尼的《向塞尚致敬》因此不能一概論定為單純地向塞尚致敬。 目前臺灣針對德尼相關所撰寫的論文不多, 對於此幅作品討論的篇幅甚少,希望本論文的研究與討論有助於建構德尼藝術表現更為全面性的觀點。
Hommage à Cézanne painted by French artist Maurice Denis (1870-1943) in 1900 is a painting that combines a self-portrait, a group portrait and a gallery depiction. The dominant tendency amongst scholars has viewed Hommage à Cézanne as a document of Cézanne’s rising reputation rather than as a painting with its own formal tensions and interests. Cézanne’s significance for the early twentieth-century modernism has led scholars to extract this painting out of its complicated context in which it was appreciated. In my study, I analyse Maurice Denis’ renewed strategy on group portraiture and homage painting, pointing out that he not only adopts the tradition of group portrait to pay homage to Cézanne, but also transforms its composition into an ideology of reconciliation. Denis’ personal intention for staging significant personalities reveals a deeper intention than his title “Homage to Cézanne” might announce. By positioning the figures of the Nabis, Cézanne, Redon, Gauguin, Renoir, and Vollard, Denis constitutes interpersonal relations on his painting. He wove a social connection between his companions and advisors in artistic association. This thesis is divided into three chapters, each centering on a single topic about Denis’ strategy. Chapter one examines the development of group portraiture and homage painting during the nineteenth-century in France. By examining previous important group portraits and homage paintings, such as by Louis-Léopold Boilly, Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, and Félix Vallotton, I analyse the formal tradition of group portraiture and renewed strategy Denis has taken in Hommage à Cézanne. Chapter two investigates the relations and pictorial dialogue in the Nabi group which mainly focus on Cézanne’s still life Compotier, verre et pommes. Positioned in the center of Denis’ work, Cézanne’s still life Compotier, verre et pommes actually plays an important role in the Nabi circle, since it was approprited by one after another. By making several examples in contrast with the prototype of Cézanne, including the still life of Denis, Gauguin, Sérusier, and Bernard, it is obvious to find that the Nabi circle and their artistic allegiances overlapped a similiar cast of characters for Cézanne’s still life. These connections demonstrate an interest in collective painting that was itself formed collectively, shaped and reshaped in a network of artists and writers, colleagues and friends. Chapter three explores the relationship between artists, writers, dealers and others; they are directly involved in the group and their portraits in Hommage à Cézanne. The representative figures in Hommage à Cézanne such as Gauguin, Redon, Vollard and the Nabis group weaved a complicated relationship in their circle at the end of the nineteenth-century. Examining their relationship and attitude toward Hommage à Cézanne helps to interpret another dimension of the painting. My research argues Hommage à Cézanne is not only a painting that pays homage to Cézanne, but it also pays homage to Redon. This painting also celebrates a moment that the Nabi members were getting together after their generation was reaching an end. It is a pictorial statement of a group of artists as well as a group portrait that memorializes the Nabi group, their guides, and the prospect of avant-garde. Denis even attempted to reconcile his devout Catholicism with the practice of this painting. By forging Symbolism into a new synthesis between sensation and imagination, the individual and the collectivity, as well as between modernity and tradition, Denis presented Hommage à Cézanne as a model reconciliation of intellectual and the Nabi collective aspects.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0697670159%22.&%22.id.&
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