Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/102330
Title: 克里斯多福‧諾蘭《記憶拼圖》(2000)之心智圖與分鏡圖敘事元素
Mind Mapping and Storyboarding in Christopher Nolan’s Memento (2000)
Authors: 諾斯邦
Nussbaum, Valentin
陳紀吟
CHEN, CHI-YIN
Keywords: 克里斯多福‧諾蘭
記憶拼圖
心智圖
分鏡圖
相片
拍立得
紋身
刺青
Christopher Nolan
Memento
Mind Map
Storyboard
Photograph
Polaroid
Tattoo
Mnemosyne Atlas
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: 本文主要探討英國導演克里斯多福‧諾蘭(Christopher Nolan)執導的電影作品《記憶拼圖》(Memento)〈2000〉。諾蘭是現今公認深具影響力的電影導演之一,其首部執導作品《跟蹤》(Following)〈1998〉推出即受到多方矚目和推崇。由於諾蘭擅長營造「非線性」的敘事形式,推翻觀眾習以為常的視覺經驗,使觀者產生疑問和好奇,驅使觀者探究其作品內容。 《記憶拼圖》被歸類為「新黑色電影」 (neo-noir), 以復仇為故事主軸。主角藍納‧薛比 (Leonard Shelby)〈蓋‧皮爾斯主演〉(Guy Pearce)失去儲存短暫性記憶的能力,因此利用拍立得「相片」和「紋身」調查妻子的謀殺案,並成為影響故事發展的重要關鍵。本文將深入探討上述兩大主題,分析導演如何以這兩種媒介敘述本故事。 本文第一章以導演諾蘭利用「相片」敘述故事為研究主軸。本部電影的敘述結構以兩條時間軸發展,觀者彷彿身入其境,體驗主角因記憶問題造成的混亂感。除此之外,導演利用相片引導觀眾挖掘故事的不同面向,遂成為另一條敘述主軸。主角利用拼貼相片的方式,協助他調查妻子的謀殺案,其過程類似「心智圖」的記憶方式,及「分鏡圖」的敘事元素將於本章深入探討。本章最後對於相片本質的真偽提出疑問,相片雖協助主角揭發謀殺「真相」,卻也令故事發展陷入膠著。 第二章探討導演如何利用另一種媒介—「紋身」敘述本故事。主角身上的「紋身」除了輔助其記憶問題與調查案情,也成為主角編織故事的方式之一。首先藉由分析主角身上最顯著的兩個紋身,探討導演諾蘭藉此營造故事的不明確感。綜觀來說,「紋身」一詞常被賦予離經叛道之特性,或在歷史、部落、大眾文化中,視為裝飾性的圖紋,因此「紋身」的本質是模糊且不明確的。這樣的特性也反應在主角自身,每個「紋身」敘述不同的故事及意義,因此無法明確瞭解主角「真正」的目的和動機。導演諾蘭利用「相片」和「紋身」兩種媒介,以及非線性的敘事方式,創造《記憶拼圖》不同以往的觀看方式。
The subject of this thesis focuses on the movie Memento (2000) directed by the British film director, Christopher Nolan, one of the most influential film directors in the twenty-first century. Nolan became known and acclaimed in the film industry since his debut feature Following released in 1998. But it is with Memento and its ambiguous narrative that his fame increased durably. He showcases the ability to create ambiguous narratives which further prompt the spectators to question and to investigate into his works. Inspired and influenced by his contribution and influences I would like to shed more light on his œuvre. “Memento” is a term that refers to “something that is kept as a reminder of a person, place or thing.” It originates from Latin, and literally means “to remember.” “Memento” illustrates the act of “remembering,” and additionally represents a device or an object used to remember something, such as a memo. The term embodies the central concept of the film, in which Leonard Shelby, the main protagonist suffers from the loss of his short-term memory. In order to remember to avenge from the loss of his wife, he uses Polaroid photographs and inscribes tattoos on his body to assist him in his investigation. Since, photography and tattoo play significant roles in the film, it will be necessary to analyze their functioning in the structure of the movie. This thesis will discuss these two issues, and further relate them to other perspectives introduced as follows. Chapter one discusses how Nolan exploits photography as a means to construct a story. We will first demonstrate that the way the protagonist is constructing his thinking and reconstructing his loss of memories through the display of photos on a map is analogous to the thinking method – of “mind mapping.” The narrative structure of Memento has two different time lines. Nolan provides the audience with the same chaotic experience as that lived by the main protagonist. Another narrative structure is delicately presented in the protagonist’s way of mapping his investigation through photographs pinned on the wall of his motel room, a technique, as we will show, that is not that far from the principles of storyboarding. Since the whole movie plays on narrative and visual ambiguities, it will be necessary to analyze how the filmmaker exploits specific common places such as those related to the reliability of pictures on which the protagonist relies to lead his investigation. Another mnemonic device the protagonist mainly uses is the tattoos inscribed on his body. In the second chapter, I will discuss how the protagonist’s tattoos are exploited in the film. Inscribed all over his upper body and thighs, Leonard uses them as personal memos to help his memory problem and as an aid in the assault case investigation. Ironically, the tattoos’ disorganized and multifaceted nature makes them complex to understand. I will first examine the two significant inscriptions Nolan uses to create ambiguous narratives based on their meanings. When further examining Leonard’s tattoos, we realize that each of them tells different stories of the bearer. It showcases that tattoos have a narrative quality, and so does the photography as discussed in the first chapter. In the second part of the chapter, I will then draw the attention to the tattooing status in history. When speaking to the notion of tattooing, it often showcases the behavior of deviance, or its ornamental quality in the history, tribal culture and pop culture. The categorization of tattooing thus bears a veiled status and is fraught with obscurity. Beyond historical and cultural contexts, the overall ambiguity of tattoos can be identified in the character of Nolan and the movie Memento as a whole.
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