災後心理重建歷程之合作行動研究 Study of Co-operative Action Inquiry on After-Disaster Psychological Rehabilitation Process

Date
2002
Authors
賴念華
Nien-Hwa Lai
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Abstract
本研究的主要目的是在台灣「九二一大地震」後,以台北「凱悅安心服務站」為例,以行動研究來探討心理衛生工作者在災後危機處理的行動方案及策略;接著進入中部災區之「山城國小」,藉行動研究來探討「表達性藝術治療」在災後心理重建工作的行動方案及策略;並建構以「學校為基礎」的災後心理重建之行動方案;最後,反思災後心理衛生工作者的轉換歷程。 本研究在「凱悅安心服務站」部分,以服務台北東星災區安置在凱悅飯店之災民為對象,工作時間包括一個月的災後駐站服務,以及撤站後持續為期兩年的案家服務歷程;隨即在災後三個月與藝術治療種子教師進入「山城國小」,依照該校需求調整災後心理重建工作方案,其中包括為期半年的「兒童假日生活營」,以及為該校教師、家長舉辦的「親師懇談會」,在災後十五個月進行該校「教師成長工作坊」。本研究在處理災後心理重建歷程中發現,因工作時間、對象、地點的轉換,需透過不斷的督導與省思來產出新的行動策略,以因應災後混亂現場的變化。同時研究者的角色與行動也隨著進入時間有所轉換;進入現場前,我以一位諮商實務工作者產生行動,企圖解決災後現場問題為始;到現場後,發現需與其他心理衛生工作者及教師合作進行「協同研究」;最後,發現心理衛生工作者對現場理解依舊十分有限,而邀請山城教師共同進行「合作行動研究」的過程。 經歷長達二年介入災後現場工作,研究結果依著時間序分別以台北「凱悅安心服務站」、山城國小之「兒童假日生活營」、「親師懇談會」、「災後教師成長工作坊」四部分呈現;每一部份都以敘說方式描寫,將過程中的省思與行動策略一併呈現。之後,我與一位案主的互動歷程,以及合作行動研究者之信件對話的會心過程,以詩作文本呈現在第五章「生命交會的對話」,藉以凸顯助人工作中「關係與理解」的重要。 最後,依本研究過程整理出「表達性藝術治療」處理災後哀傷、失落的行動方案與策略;災後心理衛生工作者危機時期的行動策略;災後以學校為基礎的心理重建工作方案;災後研究者對心理衛生工作者、研究方法、以及在專業知識與專業中的自我省思。本研究藉由省思中再反思來產出新的視框,透過不斷的互動與對話來理解災後現場的人、事、物,進而能對本土災後心理重建歷程多了一份瞭解與再建構。
The primary purpose of study is to make use of action inquiry to investigate the action alternative and strategy of mental health workers during after-disaster crisis management after “September 21st Earthquake” in Taiwan, while the case of “Hyatt Consolation Service Station” is exploited as illustration. Next, the focus of the study is moved to the “Mountainous Primary School” in central Taiwan, where the earthquake had done massive devastation. With action inquiry, expressive art therapy is employed to explore action alternative and strategy for after-disaster psychological rehabilitation. Furthermore, action alternatives with school-based psychological rehabilitation will be construed; at theend, the processes and mechanism of transformation of the mental health workers are being reflected after calamity. With regard to the study of “Hyatt Consolation Service Station”, the service is mainly rendered to those victims of Tung-Sing Building in Taipei and they are being accommodated at Hyatt Hotel. The duration of servicing for the after-disaster care rendered to them include one-month after-disaster station service and two-year housing service after the station is pulled out. And three months right after disaster, seedling teachers of art therapy start to reside at the “Mountainous Primary School” and psychological rehabilitation alternatives adjusted to the needs of the school are formulated. Of these alternatives, they include half-year “Children Holiday Camp” for the school children and “Parent-and-Teacher Discussions” for the parents and teachers; and there is also “Teacher Growth Workshop” conducted fifteen months after the disaster. It is found during psychological rehabilitation that after the disaster endless supervision and reflection have to be conducted in order to bring forth new action strategies so that the changes of after-disaster chaotic situations can be coped with. At the same time, the role and actions of the researchers begin to change with time; before being accepted to the accident site, I am working as a counseling practitioner to bring out actions in order to deal with the problems that are directly related to the disaster. After getting to the site, it is found that I have to conduct collaboration inquiry with other mental health works and teachers, at the end, we find that psychological and mental health workers are still very much limited in their understanding of the accident site. Therefore, we have invited the teachers from the “Mountainous Primary School” to work with us in the processes of co-operative action inquiry. Throughout the time-span of two years rendering service to the accident site, the results of our research are unveiled in four parts with chronological order starting form “Hyatt Consolation Service Station,” “Children Holiday Camp,” “Teacher Growth Workshop,” and “Teacher Growth Workshop,” Each part is delineated with description, in addition with reflection and action strategy during the processes. Afterward, there is interaction of the author with each of the clients, as well as the encounter of correspondences with the action researchers during the collaboration, which being displayed in poems and essays are compiled in the chapter five titled “The Dialog of Life Encounter” in order to stand our the importance of “relationship and understanding” in the work of helping others. At the end, this study will base on the process to bring out action alternatives and strategies of “expressive art therapy” dealing with after-disaster grief and loss, action strategies of crisis management for mental health workers after disaster, psychological rehabilitation alternatives after disaster that is school-based, and self-reflection among mental health worker, towards research methods, and expertise and profession after the disaster. This study hopes to make use of incessant reflections so as to create some new perspective, and would like to make use of constant interaction and dialog to appreciate the people, events, and objects at the site so that a greater understanding and reconstruction for domestic after-disaster psychological rehabilitation can be obtained.
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Keywords
心理重建, 表達性藝術治療, 危機處理, 學校基礎, 合作行動研, 地震災難, psychological rehabilitation, expressive art therapy, crisis management, school-based, co-operative action inquiry, earthquake disaster
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