你的母語不是你的母語: 以臺南地區及北臺灣高中生為例

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2023

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語言是群體社會中彼此溝通最重要的媒介,而母語更是一個族群文化傳承的象徵。自古以來臺灣一直是多元文化的語言社會,在歷經日治時代初期推行國語教育與後期的皇民化運動,以及國民政府時期獨尊華語的教育政策影響,各種本土語言因此面臨瀕危的危機,解嚴之後,在母語復振人士的積極推動下,政府於2001年將本土語言課程正式納入九年一貫的國小部定課程,至今已逾二十年,母語是否有如預期向下扎根,進而傳承延續,值得我們進一步去探討。本研究為質性分析法,採半結構式的深度訪談,以臺南地區及北臺灣高中生為受訪對象,以 Skutnabb-Kangas(1984)的母語定義為論文主架構,藉由問卷訪談內容,透過高中生的語言使用現狀,歸納及分析他們現階段對於母語的選擇及定義。研究結果顯示,這群過去在國小階段皆接受本土語言課程,部分在國中階段參與本土語文教育,且為108課綱首屆即將或已經接受部定本土語言課程的高中生其母語認知,與傳統認知中族語及母語的觀念不同,他們對於母語的選擇及定義已趨向多元化,不再是單一的選擇及定義,且與母語定義中的多元理論產生共鳴。本研究期望提供不同的思考面向,做為日後復振各族群母語之教育推廣運動及政策制定的參考,同時亦有拋磚引玉之意,期盼有更多的有志之士,能繼續投入更深更廣的研究,讓我們的母語不只是一個保存的文化象徵,更期待我們的母語教育有開花結果之時,能夠世世代代繼續傳承下去。
Language serves as a paramount medium of communication in society, and one’s mother tongue is a significant marker of cultural heritage for ethnic groups. Throughout history, Taiwan has been a multicultural and multilingual society. However, the imposition of the national language (Japanese) policy throughout the Japanese colonial period, and subsequent compulsory Mandarin education, have had a negative impact on the local Sinophone and various indigenous languages to the extent of language endangerment. In the post-martial law era, instigated by fervent advocates of the mother-tongue revitalization movement,and according to the Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines the government formally integrated local language curricula into the national primary school curricula in 2001. Reflecting on its achievements in the past two decades, warrants a closer look on whether the mother tongue has indeed taken root as envisioned, and successful in perpetuating its legacy to the next generations.This research adopts a qualitative analytical approach, employing semi-structured in-depth interviews with high school students from the Tainan region and northern Taiwan. Anchored in the framework set forth by Skutnabb-Kangas for defining the concept of ‘mother tongue’, the questionnaire-based interviews are conducted with the high school students. This group of high school students has received native language courses in the primary school. Some of them have participated in native language education in middle school. According to the 108 curricula Guidelines, they were the first batch of senior high school students to learn who will receive or have already received the prescribed native language courses. Insights from the students' current language practices enable to analyze their contemporary choices and definitions of what they regard as ‘mother tongue’. Findings reveal that their perspectives on what constitutes ‘mother tongue’ differentiate from traditional notions of mother tongue associated with ethnic identity. Instead, their perceptions indicate diversification and resonate with the theoretical framework of plurality in mother tongue definitions. The overarching objective of this study is to provide different perspectives as reference for future educational endeavours and promotional initiatives aimed at revitalizing the mother tongues of diverse ethnic groups. Moreover, it seeks to initiate a continued academic discussion with policy makers furthering the exploration of local language instruction within a mother tongue educational framework for future generations.

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母語定義, 本土語言, 高中生, 語言復振, 課程, 臺南, 北臺灣, 質性分析, mother tongue definitions, local languages, high school students, language revitalization, curricula, Tainan, Northern Taiwan, qualitative methodology

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