教室情境中自我調整學習模式的驗證暨影響國小五年級學生數學科之自我調整學習的教室情境因素探討

Abstract
本研究目的有二:(一)統整有關的自我調整學習理論,建構一個適用於教室學習情境的自我調整學習模式,並以實徵資料來驗證此一自我調整學習模式的適配度。(二)採用質性的研究法,探討國小五年級學生在上數學課時,影響自我調整學習的教室情境因素。 為了完成前述的研究目的,本研究進行研究一、研究二兩個研究。所使用的研究工具包括社會環境支持量表、目標導向量表、學習策略量表、情感反應量表、攝影機以及錄音機等。 在研究一中,研究者以數學為特定領域,提出一個包含社會環境支持、趨近精熟目標導向、趨近表現目標導向、學習策略、數學學習成就及情感反應等六個成份的「教室情境中自我調整學習模式」,並使用實徵資料來驗證此一模式。本研究的受試者是以252位台北市國小五年級學生為觀察樣本,進行理論模式與觀察資料的適配度考驗。模式考驗的結果發現在整體模式適配度和模式內在結構適配度兩方面,都顯示本研究所提出的理論模式跟一般台北市國小五年級學生的觀察資料可以適配。換言之,本研究所提出的「教室情境中自我調整學習模式」可以用來解釋一般台北市國小五年級學生的觀察資料。 在研究二中,研究者採用質性的研究法。研究者依研究目的尋找願意接受研究合作的對象,最後得到基隆市友力國小五年勇班涵嫣老師(化名)的同意,成為本研究二的研究參與者。為了達到研究目的,本研究二共計進行14次,每次1節課的參與觀察研究。另外,研究者配合參與觀察研究法的需要,選取能進一步提供資料的學生,作為本研究訪談法的研究參與者。共計在研究期間,研究者選取14位學生作為本研究的訪談對象。本研究的資料分析發現在教室的學習環境方面,教室中輕鬆的學習氣氛、座位的安排、教師的愛心與關懷等因素皆有利於學生獲得自我調整學習的技能。而在教師的教學方面,教師採用鷹架教學、同儕教導策略、教導學生使用注意力控制策略、教導學生使用認知策略、教導學生使用後設認知策略與教導學生使用資源管理策略等教學方式,皆能促進學生自我調整學習技能的獲得。 綜合而言,本研究一所建構的「教室情境中自我調整學習模式」可以獲得支持,顯示國小學生的自我調整學習歷程會涉及社會環境支持、目標導向、學習策略、學習成就及情感反應。而從本研究二的實地觀察結果也發現到教學的情境會影響學生的學習策略、學習成就及情感反應。因此,教師如果要提升國小五年級學生的自我調整學習能力時,應該要考慮到這些自我調整學習的要素。
The purposes of this study were to: (1) verify the goodness of fit between empirically observed data and the Classroom Self-regulated Learning Model proposed by the researcher; (2) use a qualitative method to study the factors which affect self-regulated learning in a classroom context during mathematics classes. For these purposes, the whole study was divided into two parts, study I and study II. The instruments employed in this study include: the Social and Environmental Support Inventory, the Goal Orientation Inventory, the Learning Strategies Inventory, the Affective Reaction Inventory, a video camera and tape recorders. In study I, the researcher proposed the Classroom Self-regulated Learning Model, which includes six components: social and environmental support, approach mastery goal orientation, approach performance goal orientation, learning strategies, learning performances, and affective reaction. The researcher then verified the goodness of fit of the Classroom Self-regulated Learning Model. The participants included 252 fifth-grade students sampled from elementary schools in Taipei. The results indicated that the Classroom Self-regulated Learning Model fitted the observed data well, in terms of both the fit of the overall model and the fit of the internal structure of the model. In study II, the researcher used a qualitative method. The researcher conducted observational studies on one class from Yo-Li Primary School in Keelung, and interviewed 14 fifth-grade students from the same school. In order to obtain a sufficient amount of data, 14 sessions of observational studies were conducted. The results showed that a pleasant classroom environment, seat arrangements, and love and care from the teachers were helpful in learning the skills of self-regulated learning. With regard to teaching methods, the results showed that scaffolding instructions, peer instructions, as well as teaching students to use attention control strategies, cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, and resource management strategies were beneficial to learning the skills of self-regulated learning. To sum up, the results of both studies support the Classroom Self-regulated Learning Model. This paper also provides a discussion on the results of the study, and makes some recommendations regarding instruction assistance and future studies.
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Keywords
教室情境, 自我調整, 學習模式, 數學科
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