臺灣原住民與漢人青少年幽默風格差異之中介因素探討及其對生活適應的中介效果 Mediators of Humor Style and their effects on Life Adaption for Taiwanese Indigenous and Han Adolescents

Date
2021
Authors
蔡孟樺
Tsai, Meng-Hua
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Abstract
臺灣原住民屬於少數族群且因經濟條件等因素而在社會文化上較為弱勢,而過去有關臺灣原住民的研究較少有原住民優勢特質或能力的研究,近期研究雖發現原住民的幽默有助於原住民的個人適應,但無法確定是否為原住民族群特有,且對於原住民之幽默並未詳細地說明是正向或負向幽默。故本研究將以客觀嚴謹且多面向的觀點來進行幽默風格與族群的系列相關研究,檢證原住民與漢人青少年幽默特質差異,釐清原住民族特有的幽默類型為何,並比較自陳與實際產出幽默風格的差異,再進一步從文化(個人/集體主義)、家庭(父母心理控制)、及個人(人格、執行功能)層次分別來探討其對在族群與幽默風格關聯中的中介效果,最後探討幽默風格如何中介族群與生活適應的關係。本研究以臺灣原住民與漢人國中生為參與者,共抽樣1791位學生,其中原住民學生491位,漢人學生1300位。以問卷調查法進行資料收集,研究結果發現,不論自陳式或產出式的幽默測驗形式,原住民學生皆比漢人學生有較高的自我提升型與自我貶抑型幽默。而在各層次的中介效果結果,文化層次:原住民會因為具有較高的水平集體主義、垂直集體主義而有較高的自我提升型幽默的表現;在家庭層次:原住民會因為具有較高的增強母親權威與父親貶低孩子價值,而有較高的自我貶抑型幽默,原住民學生覺知較高的增強母親權威,也會提高其自我提升型幽默的表現;個人層次方面,人格與執行功能指標則不具族群與幽默風格之間的中介效果。最後在生活適應方面,原住民學生比漢人學生具有較高的生活適應,且經中介檢定後發現,此效果來自於原住民具有較高的集體主義傾向與覺知到較高的母親權威,而具有較高的自我提升型幽默,進而提升了他們的生活適應。研究最後建議國中階段的教學能設計讓原住民學生表現自我提升型幽默的優勢中心教學,來提升原住民學生的生活適應。
Taiwanese indigenous people belong to an ethnic minority, and their social culture is disadvantageous due to economics. There were few studies on Taiwanese indigenous people's strength or ability in the past. Although indigenous people's humor styles were found helpful to life adaptation, it was unclear whether the findings were exclusive for indigenous people or their humor traits were positive or native. To address this research gap, the present study has investigated the relationships among humor styles and ethnics in objective, rigorous, and multiple perspectives. A series of studies were conducted to achieve the following goals: (1) To identify the differencein humor styles between Taiwanese indigenous and Han adolescents. (2) To investigate the humor styles specifically for indigenous people. (3) To compare result differences between self-reported questionnaire and actual humor production, and, (4) To examine the mediation effects of culture (Individualism-Collectivism), family (Parental Psychological Control), and personal (personality, Executive Function Index) in the relationships of the ethnics and humor styles, and the mediation effect of humor styles to life adaptation.The participants were 1791 Taiwanese indigenous and Han high school students, including 491 indigenous adolescents and 1300 Han adolescents. Data were collected with questionnaires. Results showed that, no matter humor was assessed by self-reported items or actual humor production, indigenous students had a higher self-enhancing humor style and a self-defeating humor style. As for the mediation effects, at the cultural level, indigenous students had higher horizontal collectivism as well as vertical collectivism; thus, their self-enhancing humor was higher. At the family level, indigenous students had higher enhanced power from mother and devalue from father; thus, they had higher self-defeating humor. Self-enhancing humor of indigenous students would increase since indigenous students recognized higher enhanced power from mother. At the personal level, personality and the executive function index did not have mediation effects in the relationship of ethics and humor styles. However, indigenous students had higher life adaptation; a mediation effect analysis revealed that indigenous students had higher collectivism tendencies and higher awareness of maternal authority than Han students. Thus, indigenous students' self-enhancing humor score was higher, which further improved their life adaptation. Findings suggest that the strength-centered teaching in the high school stage may facilitate self-enhancing humor and thus help life adaptation for students.
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五大人格, 執行功能指標, 幽默風格, 個人/集體主義, 生活適應, 父母心理控制, 臺灣原住民, big five personality traits, executive function index, humor styles, individualism/collectivism, life adaptation, parental psychological control, Taiwan indigenous people
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