資優班系統思考課程之規劃與實踐

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2020-08-??

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國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育中心
National Taiwan Normal University Special Education Center

Abstract

高層次思考的教學一直是資優班教學的重點之一,有鑑於過去資優班在思考技能上的教學,探討的議題成因最後多以線性的因果關係做結,系統思考的專家指出,線性思考的結論,容易產生「今日的問題,來自於昨日的解」現象,且長此以往易流於見樹不見林之虞。因此本文以系統思考作為工具,將技法教學融入於資優班的特殊需求課程中,引導學生能以「系統觀」取代「線性觀」,以此探看事件的全貌,最後再整合過去思考技法的舊經驗進行問題的闡釋及嘗試解決。文中先介紹系統思考的工具:流量儲量圖、反饋迴路圖,文末筆者提供一份教案設計示例,教案內容主要以 DFC 問題解決課程設計架構,融入系統思考工具,引導學生覺察事件背後的系統及各要素間的關係。
High level thinking training has always been one of the key points in the curriculum design of gifted classes. In the past, with regard to the teaching of thinking skills, the cause of the topics discussed are mostly linear causality. However, the operation of theworld is composed of complex system, and simple linear causality is not enough to give us an insight into the full picture of events. Experts in systems thinking point out that the conclusions of linear thinking are prone to the phenomenon that "today's problems come from yesterday's solutions." This article integrated the systematic thinking perspective into gifted curriculum, and guides students to replace the "linear perspective" with a "system perspective" in order to get a clearer overview of the event. The article firstintroduced the tools for systematic thinking: BOT Graph (Behavior over Time Graph), Flows and Stocks Diagram, Causality Loop Diagram, and then demonstrated how to apply these techniques to explain phenomena or events. Finally, the author provided an instructional design to illustrate how to incorporate the system thinking tools into the framework of the problem-solving course to guide students perceive the system behind the problem and the relationship between the elements.

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