12碼罰球足內側射門在踢向 不同目標之踢球腳肌電活化程度研究 The kicking leg muscle’s EMG activation patterns during kicking towards different objects in penalty kick by using inside kick

Date
2014
Authors
趙孟哲
Meng-Zhe, Zhao
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Abstract
足球運動中,最常見的射門方式是足部射門。而足部射門方式尚能分為足內側射門與正足背射門等兩種方式,由於十二碼罰球的判決往往影響一場比賽的勝負,因此提高12碼命中率的議題變得很重要。在兩種不同的射門方式中,足內側射門的精準度較高於正足背,精英的選手往往將足球踢向四個角落,出球速度並不快,讓守門員難以防守,不過有時因為肌肉過度用力導致錯失得分機會。本研究目的以八名大專足球一級聯賽選手為實驗對象,目的在探討選手在進行12碼罰球時,踢向不同目標的踢球腳肌電活化程度及其運動生物力學參數;以Vicon Motion Capture System(250Hz)擷取人體射門動作反光球資料,經由Visul 3D軟體計算運動學參數,同步利用Noraxon無線肌電圖系統(1500Hz)擷取人體肌電訊號,並以HiSpec 4(500Hz)高速攝影機側拍射門動作來做動作分期;所以有參數均利用SPSS20.0版本統記套裝軟體進行計算,以無母數弗里曼二因子變異數分析來進行統計考驗,顯著水準訂為α=.05。結果發現:一、運動學的資料中在踢向上目標(目標1、目標3)的髖關節有較大的屈曲角度變化、膝關節有在後擺期有較大的屈曲角度變化、觸球期有較大的伸展角度變化、踝關節則沒有太多的變化。二、肌電圖資料中在踢向上方目標(目標1、目標3)股直肌、股外側肌、股內側肌有較大的肌電活化訊號。建議:在肌肉的訓練,通常不會只針對某一肌群訓練,幾乎都下肢一起作訓練但本實驗也發現到一些小肌肉群如:脛前肌與腓腸肌也有一定程度上的收縮提供了腳踝穩定,進而增加命中率,因此藉由本實驗提供的數據與建議,能夠提供給選手與教練參考,進而善用與了解該部位肌肉收縮的特性,增加12碼罰球的命中率。
In football, the most common way of shooting is by foot. Otherwise, the way of shooting can be divided into two patterns, which are full step kick and inside kick. As penalty kick always determinates the outcome of a game, Thus, how to raise the success rate of goal becomes an important issue. Therefore, most of the elite football players shoot by inside kick and aim the four corners of the goal, Even though the speed of the ball is not very fast, the player still can field the goal, which is hard for goal keeper to safe. But sometimes the players may miss the chance of fielding the goal, because of their muscle contract too excessive. The subjects of this study were eight colleage UFA 1 division players.The mark trajectories of body motion were collected by the VICON Motion Capture System(250Hz). Using Visaul 3D software to calculate the kinematic data.In the meanwhile, collecting the EMG data by Noraxon wireless EMG system(1500Hz)and also use HiSpec 4 high-speed video camara(500Hz) to record and calculate the data by MyoReserch XP Master Edition software. All the parameters were tested by Friedman two-way analysis of variance nonparametric statistical test by SPSS20.0, the significant level as α=.05.The results are:1.there is more hip joint angle flex when during accurate kick to the top target(target 1 and 3),and there is more knee joint angle flex during accurate kick to the top target(target 1 and 3) in the backswing.2.there is higher rectus femoris,vastus lateralis and,svastus medialis EMG activity during accurate kick to the top target(target 1 and 3).Suggestion: In this study, we found that the shooting action, in addition to the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and other large muscle groups, such as the anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius muscle and other smaller muscles will not only contract but also provide stability of ankle, and then increase the success rate of goal. Therefore this study may provide some data, to the coach or the players in order to use and understand of the characteristics of the site of muscle contraction, and then increase success rate of goal in penalty kick.
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射門, 命中率, 運動學, 肌電圖, penalty kick, success rate of goal, kinematic, EMG
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